Phylogeny of the Ammobatini and revision of the Afrotropical genera (Hymenoptera : Anthophoridae : Nomadinae)
The phylogeny of the Ammobatini was studied, with regard to the principles of cladistics using parsimony, and the classification is revised. It is concluded that the tribe forms a monophyletic group that comprises six distinct monophyletic genera: Pasite Jurine, Sphecodopsis Bischoff, Ammobates Latreille, Melanempis Saussure, Spinopasites Warncke and Oreopasites Cockerell, of which Pasites, Sphecodopsis, Ammobates and Melanempis occur in the Afrotropical Region. The Afrotropical species of these four genera are revised. Pseudopasites Bischoff and Pseudodichroa Bischoff are synonymized with Sphecodopsis. Pasites includes 17 Afrotropical species, Sphecodopsis 10 species, and Ammobates and Melanempis are each known from a single Afrotropical species. Ten new species are described: Passites nilssoni, P. paulyi, P. humecta, P. gnoma, P. namibiensis, P. somalica, Sphecodopsis vespericena, S. longipygidium, S. namaquensis and Ammobates auster. Thirty-three names are synonymized: they are P. nigerrima (Friese), P. argentata (Baker) (= P. barkeri (Cockerell)); P. chubbi Cockerell, P. nigritula Bischoff, P. peratra Cockerell (= P. atra Friese); P. nigripes (Friese), P. fortis Cockerell, P. subfortis Cockerell, P. stordyi Cockerell, P. voiensis Cockerell, P. altior Cockerell (= P. carnifex (Gerstaecker)); P. natalensis (Cockerell), P. aiboguttatus (Friese), P. ogilviei (Cockerell) (= P. jenseni (Friese)); P. alivalensis (Cockerell), P. rufitarsis (Cockerell) (= P. histrio (Gerstaecker)); P. marshaUi (Cockerell) (= P. jonesi (Cockerell)); P. abessinica (Friese), P. fulviventris (Bischoff), P. rhodesialla (Bischoff), P. apicalis (Bischoff), P. turneri (Cockerell), P.politula (Cockerell), P. indecisa (Cockerell), P. nudicauda (Cockerell), P. bechuanica (Cockerell), P. breviceps (Cockerell) (= P. appletoni (Cockerell); S. rufula (Cockerell) (= S. minutissima (Cockerell)); S. pygmaea (Friese), S. rufescens Bischoff, S. algoensis Bischoff, S. perpunctata Cockerell (= S. aculeata (Friese)); S. leonis (Cockerell) (= S. semirufa (Cockerell)). Keys to the genera and species are provided.