An assessment of the quality and acceptance of a ready-to-use supplement, Sibusiso, by human immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus/tuberculosis treated patients in KwaZulu-Natal.
Mabaso, Prudence Bongekile.
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Introduction: Malnutrition is a health issue directly and indirectly contributing towards high rates of morbidity and mortality globally, particularly in developing countries. South Africa (SA) is faced with a double burden of diseases with a high prevalence of both under and over nutrition. The high prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in SA worsens undernutrition. HIV/AIDS increases nutrient requirements and inadequate food intake results in malnutrition. Nutrition support through food supplementation is important to combat the high prevalence of malnutrition in sub-Saharan African countries including South Africa. Thus, a groundnut-soya based supplementary paste, Sibusiso, has been produced. However, its nutritional composition and acceptability have not been studied. Objectives: (i) To determine the nutritional composition and physical properties of a ready-to-use supplement, Sibusiso, (ii) To determine the sensory acceptability of Sibusiso among healthy subjects; and sensory acceptability and perceptions of Sibusiso by subjects treated for HIV and HIV/TB. Materials and methods: The nutritional composition, colour and texture of Sibusiso and a commercial peanut butter (control) were analysed following standard procedures. A cross-sectional consumer acceptability test was done using a 5-point facial hedonic scale (healthy control group, n = 68; HIV, n = 88 and HIV-TB co-infection treated, n = 51). A total of six focus group discussion sessions (HIV subjects = 4 sessions and HIV/TB co-infected subjects = 2 sessions) were also conducted. Results and discussions: The protein content of Sibusiso (16 g/100 g) was almost half that of the commercial peanut butter (control), (25 g/100 g). However, Sibusiso contained 1.4 times more ash (4 g/100 g) and almost twice as much carbohydrate (40 g/100 g) compared to the commercial peanut butter (22 g/100 g). The fat (40 g/100 g) and energy (2 624 kJ/ 100 g) content of Sibusiso was not substantially different from that of the commercial peanut butter which was 43 g/100 g and 2 852 kJ/100 g, respectively. The lysine content of Sibusiso (58 mg/g) was about 1.7 times higher than that of the commercial peanut butter. The methionine (11 mg/g) and histidine (35 mg/g) content of Sibusiso was almost twice that of the commercial peanut butter, respectively. The nutrient content of Sibusiso was either similar or slightly more than that of other ready-to-use supplements such as Plumpy’nut®. Sibusiso met the FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations for essential amino acids. The consumption of 50 g of Sibusiso per day may provide approximately 35% of the Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) and 30% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for adults. Sibusiso was brown in colour, similar to the commercial peanut butter. Its textural attributes were found similar to that of the commercial peanut butter but harder and stickier. The acceptability of Sibusiso was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.05) with the health status of consumers. Overall, Sibusiso was liked by 94% of HIV and HIV/TB individuals (mean score: 4) compared to 85% for the healthy group (control). More than 90% of the HIV/TB and HIV treated individuals liked the taste compared to the control group (86%, mean score: 4). The colour and mouthful were rated 'good' by more than 80% of the HIV and HIV/TB group, mean score: 3, with only 68% among the healthy group, mean score: 4.1. Conclusion: Sibusiso is a good source of nutrients and was found to be acceptable to HIV and HIV/TB treated consumers. It may be effective in alleviating disease-related malnutrition among vulnerable individuals such as those infected by HIV and HIV/TB.