|dc.contributor.advisor||Lawes, Michael John.||
|dc.contributor.advisor||Granger, James Edmund.||
|dc.creator||Obiri, John Angoro Festus.||
|dc.description||Thesis (M.Sc.)-University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 1997.||en
|dc.description.abstract||Wood products from Milletia grandis (E. Mey) skeels (umSimbithi), a prominent tree in the
coastal scarp forests ofPondoland, form an important economic base for the craft workers in
Urnzimvubu District ofthe Eastern Cape. The local carving industry draws considerable income
in a place where employment opportunities are scarce, poverty is rife and financial burden and
dependency is high. Despite the curio trade being perceived as important by the local
communities, little is known about this craft work industry or its impact on the forest especially
the sustainability of the wood resource base.
Resource availability and impacts of harvesting were assessed at Mount Thesiger Forest
Reserve (MTFR) through sampling plots and social surveys oflocal carvers and curio traders.
Stem size-class distributions ofstanding trees and stumps were used to investigate the present
quantity, past harvesting patterns and distribution ofM grandis within the forests. Line
transects sampling confirmed umSimbithi as a forest margin species penetrating to about 50
metres into the forest from the edge and its. current use was found to be unsustainable.
Current monitoring and management of most State forests in the Eastern Cape is inadequate,
and although a harvest ban has been served, it has only led to and encouraged poaching. Social
surveys indicated that the quality of monitoring and sustainability of wood stocks in the
Headmen forests appear better than in State forests and this raises hope for successful comanagement
structures in the area.
Craftwood production and derived income varied from one month to another depending on
wood availability, size and shape of stems, with straight stems being most preferred. MontWy
income per carver was estimated between R960 to RIIOO while the annual yield for the
estimated 100 carvers in the communities surrounding MTFR approximated RI.l million. It
was observed that higher sales could be obtained if (1) the amount of wood wasted during
harvests and carving could be minimised and (2) the craft products were marketed in the
lucrative up markets such as Johannesburg, Durban and Maseru.
Interviews with 30 carvers pointed to several problems most of them originating from the
stoppage of harvest permits following the ban on umSimbithi. Various recommendations
addressing carver's needs and promoting sustainable resource management are proposed.
These include (1) establishing an appropriate land tenure system, (2) reviewing the permit
system, (3) strengthening the institutional capacity ofthe Forest Department and (4) enhancing
efforts on community forest outreach through the extension system. Above all, and to achieve
sustainable forest management in Pondoland, tenurial rights needs to be addressed and the
options of co-management, community management and privatisation are discussed. It was
noted that for sustainable development to be realised in Pondoland, co-management ofnatural
resources is important and this must be supported by introduction ofother economic activities
that would alleviate pressure off the forests.||en
|dc.subject||Milletia grandis--Economic aspects--Eastern Cape.||en
|dc.subject||Forest management--Eastern Cape.||en
|dc.title||Socio-economic and environment impacts on the utilisation of umSimbithi Tree (Milletia grandis) in Eastern Cape : a case study of Mt. Thesiger Forest, Pondoland.||en