Community-based natural resource management, livelihood diversification & poverty alleviation : a case study of NG 22/23 and associated communities, Okavango Delta, northern Botswana.
This paper presents a case study from Ngamiland, northern Botswana where community~ based natural resource management (CBNRM), through a joint venture agreement (NA) between a Community~based Organisation (CBO) and the private sector for nonconsumptive tourism has been implemented with the objective of contributing to localised poverty alleviation and livelihood diversification through employment and CBO fee revenue. The economic contribution of these benefits is considered with respect to commonly accepted norms and standards within the development ideology of sustainable development and its global measurements; therefore, a brief background of the concepts of poverty, livelihood and ecotourism is presented to provide context for the evaluation of CBNRM as a preferred land~use in Botswana. An evaluation of the significance of wage employment revenue and consequent remittances in the specific case study is intended to contribute to existing studies which have primarily emphasised the contribution of CBO fee revenue only to households. It is concluded that wage employment revenue makes a significant contribution at a household level to localised poverty alleviation and livelihood diversification compared to the insignificant contribution ofCBO fee revenue.
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