Nigerian root and tuber farmers’ responses to climate change: the role of indigenous knowledge.Izindlela abalimi bokusampande baseNigeria ababhekana ngazo nesimo sokushintshashintsha kwesimo sezulu: Iqhaza lolwazi lwendabuko.
Olaniyan, Bolanle Susan.
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This study explores the role of indigenous knowledge (IK) in Nigerian root and tuber farmers’ responses to Climate Change (CC). Root and tuber production in Nigeria has been steadily increasing despite the adverse effects of Climate Change. A literature review by the researcher showed that the farmers deploy their indigenous knowledge extensively in root and tuber production and respond to CC in the process, hence the need to document these indigenous practices for inclusion into mainstream climate change adaptation strategies and education curricula, which have hitherto been dominated by scientific knowledge. The study was framed by postcolonial theory, which is about how formerly colonized people write their narratives in their own words, without the coloured lens of the colonizers. Since IK is learnt by doing, situated learning theory (SLT), which posits that learning is a social phenomenon that occurs during everyday interactions, was employed in the exploration of IK used by the root and tuber farmers. Participatory phenomenology, which is a combination of participatory research and phenomenology was the methodology used to document the farmers’ experiences and report their responses concerning CC and IK. Focus group discussions were held in six villages across Kwara state, Nigeria, to elicit their experiences of CC and one participant per village was then selected for in-depth interview and participant observation. Inductive thematic analysis was applied to the data generated. The findings showed that the major experience of CC by the root and tuber farmers has been changes in the rainfall pattern, which takes the form of early or delayed onset of rainy season, and reduction in the amount and intensity of rainfall. Other indicators of CC were also identified. The farmers also responded to CC by use natural resources in a sustainable manner. They used their IK of soil water conservation by making mounds on which they planted, they maintained soil fertility by practising crop rotation, and used compost made from household waste. The farmers’ preference for IK in adapting to CC was attributed to IK being effective, easily accessible and inexpensive along with their antipathy towards scientific interventions. The study leads to suggested ways of including the documented IK into mainstream adaptation strategies in Nigeria, and the agricultural curriculum at the secondary and tertiary education levels, to engender adoption of the blended strategies by all members of the society.IQOQA Lolu cwaningo lwalubheka iqhaza elibanjwa ulwazi lwendabuko i-indigenous knowledge (IK) ekubhekaneni nesimo sokushintshashintsha kwesimo sezulu iclimate change (CC) kubalimi bokusampande ezweni laseNigeria. Ukukhiqizwa kwezilimo ezisampande eNigeria kulokhu kukhula kancane kancane yize kunemiphumela emibi yokushintshashintsha kwesimo sezulu. Ukufunda imibono yongoti ngocwaningo oselwenziwe ikhombisa ukuthi abalimi basebenzisa ulwazi lwendabuko (IK) kakhulu ekukhiqizeni izilimo ezisampande kanti indlela abenza ngayo inokubhekana nalesi simo seCC. Ngaleyo ndlela kubonakale kunesidingo sokuzibhekisisa nokuziqopha lezi zindlela ukuze zifakwe njengengxenye yamasu okubhekana nesimo sezulu kanye nekharikhulamu yezemfundo ebibonakala ibuswa kakhulu ulwazi lwezesayensi. Ucwaningo lwasebenzisa ipostcolonial theory, okuyinjulalwazi ebheka ukuthi abantu ababeqonelwe amanye amazwe phambilini bazibhala kanjani izindaba ngempilo yabo ngawabo amazwi, ngaphandle kokuqonelwa yihlo lomcindezeli. Njengoba ulwazi lwendabuko i-IK lufundwa ngokwenza, isituated learning theory (SLT), ebeka ngokuthi ukufunda yinto eyenzeka emphakathini ngokuxhumana kwabantu kwansuku zonke, yaba wumgogodla walolu cwaningo. Ucwaningonto lokubamba iqhaza, okuyinhlanganisela yokubamba iqhaza kanye nohlaziyonto, kwaba yizindlela ezasetshenziswa ukuqopha okwenziwa abalimi bese kubikwa ngezimpendulo zabo mayelana neCC kanye ne-IK. Izingxoxo zamaqoqo ababambiqhaza zenziwa emiphakathini eyisithupha eKwara State, eNigeria, ukuze kuzwakale izimvo zabo ngeCC. Umbambiqhaza oyedwa emphakathini ngamunye wakhethelwa imposambuzo ejulile kanye nokucwaninga ngokuqaphela umbambiqhaza. Uhlaziyongqikithi oluholela kokuthile lwasetshenziswa ukuhlaziya imininingo. Imiphumela yakhombisa ukuthi ulwazi lweCC olunzulu lwabalimi bokusampande lwalumayelana nokuqaphela ukushintsha kwendlela imvula eyayina ngayo kanti nezinye izinkomba zeCC nazo zahlonzwa. Abalimi bahlangabezana nesimo seCC ngokusebenzisa izinsizasidingo zemvelo ngendlela esimamisayo. Basebenzisa ulwazi lwendabuko i-IK lokonga amanzi enhlabathini ngokwenza izindunduma okuyizona ababetshala kuzo, bakwazi ukugcina ukuvunda kwenhlabathi ngokutshalakushintshanisa, base besebenzisa nomquba owakhiwe ngemfucuza yobekusetshenziswa endlini. Ukuthi abalimi bakhethe i-IK ukuze babhekane neCC kwenziwa wukuthi le ndlela yolwazi lwendabuko isebenza kahle, ifinyeleleka kalula kanti ishibhile uma iqhathaniswa nokungenelela ngokwesayensi ababengakuthandisisi. Ucwaningo lwaholela ekutheni izindlela zendabuko ezahlonzwa zaqoshwa zibandakanywe kulawo masu ajwayelekile okumelana nezimo eNigeria, kanye nakuyo ikharikhulamu yezolimo emabangeni aphezulu nasemfundweni ephakeme ukuze kwamukelwe amasu axubile okwenza izinto emphakathini.