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dc.contributor.advisorEssack, Sabiha Yusuf.
dc.contributor.advisorAkebe, Luther King Abia.
dc.contributor.advisorBester, Linda Antionette.
dc.creatorMolechan, Chantal.
dc.date.accessioned2021-02-18T12:02:51Z
dc.date.available2021-02-18T12:02:51Z
dc.date.created2019
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.urihttps://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/handle/10413/19151
dc.descriptionMasters Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.en_US
dc.description.abstractExtensive antibiotic use in intensively-farmed poultry exerts selection pressure for the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance and virulence profiles of Enterococcus spp. along the farm to food-production chain continuum in an intensive poultry system in the uMgungundlovu District in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 187 samples along the poultry farm to food-production chain continuum (litter, faeces, transport, holding, abattoir and retail meat) were evaluated for the presence of Enterococcus spp. Molecular confirmation by PCR, targetting the genus- (tuf) and species-specific (sodA) genes was undertaken. Susceptibility profiles were assessed by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion against the WHO-AGISAR recommended panel of antibiotics for Enterococcus spp. using CLSI guidelines. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes were detected using real-time PCR. Genetic relatedness between isolates across the continuum was evaluated by REP-PCR. Of 134 isolates identified across the continuum, with a prevalence of 72%, molecular speciation confirmed the isolates as E. faecalis (36%), E. faecium (31%), E. gallinarum (2%) and other Enterococcus spp. (31%). Resistance to tetracycline (80%), erythromycin (71%), nitrofurantoin (17%), ampicillin (15%), streptomycin (15%), chloramphenicol (11%), ciprofloxacin (5%), tigecycline (4%), gentamicin (4%), teicoplanin (3%) was observed among Enterococcus spp. but no vancomycin resistance (0%). E. faecium displayed 24% resistance, and 21% were of intermediate susceptibility to quinupristin-dalfopristin. Twenty-one percent (21%) of E. faecalis and 100% of E. gallinarum, also showed intermediate susceptibility to vancomycin. Forty-three percent (43%) of E. faecium were multidrug-resistant (MDR) (resistant to 1 or more antibiotics in 3 or more antibiotic classes). The most frequently observed antibiotic resistance genes, associated with the phenotypic profiles, were tetM (76%) and ermB (67%) with a smaller percentage noted for aph(3’)-IIIa (12%) and vanC1 (1%). Virulence genes efaAFs (100%), cpd (96%) and gelE (81%) were more frequently detected in E. faecalis. The cell wall adhesin (efaAFm) was more common in E. faecium (100%) and other Enterococcus spp. (71%). Clonality evaluated by REP-PCR revealed that isolates along the continuum are highly diverse with major REP-types often consisting of isolates from the same sampling point in the continuum.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subject.otherEnterococcus spp.en_US
dc.subject.otherAntibiotic resistance.en_US
dc.subject.otherFood-Production.en_US
dc.subject.otherMultidrug resistance.en_US
dc.subject.otherSouth Africa.en_US
dc.titleMolecular epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant enterococcus spp. from farm to food-production chain in intensive poultry production in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.en_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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