Evaluating adverse drug reactions associated with antibiotic use in a public sector hospital.
Moyo, Nokuthemba Sibusiso.
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Background and Aim Antibiotics are one of the most troublesome classes of drugs contributing to adverse drug reactions. These adverse drug reactions are generally under reported. This study aimed to evaluate the adverse drug reactions associated with antibiotic use in a public sector hospital. Methods A prospective, quantitative study was carried out using adverse drug reaction reports collected from a public sector hospital in South Africa, for the period 01 July 2016 – 30 September 2016. All the adverse drug reaction reports attributed to use of antibiotics were included in the study. The patient’s age, gender, weight, antibiotic prescribed, dose of antibiotic, route of administration of the antibiotic, adverse drug reaction experienced and action taken regarding the adverse drug reaction was extracted from the adverse drug reaction report. A descriptive and inferential analysis was carried out using SPSS (version 24) to determine the strength of the relationships (Pearson Chi Square test) between different variables. Results A total of 10 adverse drug reaction reports were collected during the 3 month period from which 8 were related to antibiotic use (80%). Adverse drug reactions associated with antibiotic use were experienced mostly by female patients (n=6, 75%). Adverse drug reactions were reported for Amphoteracin B (n=3), Amoxicillin (n=1), Cefazolin (n=1), Lopinavir/Ritonavir combination (n=1), Metronidazole (n=1) and Tenofoir/Emtricitrabine/Efavirenz combination (n=1). Of the 8 adverse drug reactions, 7 required intervention to prevent permanent damage/disability. There were 2 serious adverse drug reactions; 1 required hospitalization and the other prolonged hospital stay; the remaining adverse drug reactions were classified as non-serious. Discussion and Conclusion Antibiotic related adverse drug reactions constituted 80% of all adverse drug reactions reported in a single hospital. The impact of adverse drug reactions associated with antibiotic use in the public hospital ranged from treatment to manage the adverse drug reaction to hospitalization and the prolongation of hospital stay. This study provides useful information on the current status of adverse drug reactions related to antibiotic use in the public sector in South Africa, and indicates the need for adverse drug reaction reporting in hospitals to ensure safety of medicines and better treatment outcomes.