The role of fathers’ parental involvement in female reproductive strategies : the case of Botswana.
Thutoemang, Tlotlo Cousy.
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This study located in Botswana examined if fathers’ parental involvement as well as accessibility has any effects on their daughter’s reproductive strategies. A sample of 209 females between ages 18 and 56, purposely and conveniently recruited took part in this retrospective survey. The study hypotheses were derived from a body of literature that supported a link between fathers’ parental involvement and accessibility in cuing for different female reproductive strategies. The hypotheses were also generated from the Life History Theory which speaks for fathers’ parental investment as a main cue for female reproductive strategies choice. Using the Life History Theory, fathers’ availability and high father parental involvement was expected to significantly cue for later age at menarche, later sexual debut, later first pregnancies, later first child, stable sexual pair-bonding, less number of offspring as well as high parental investment in female offspring. Thus, a reproductive strategy deemed as slowed. In overall, the Life History Theory was partially supported. Fathers’ parental involvement did not significantly predict reproductive strategies in total, rather, some of the reproductive strategies. Early onset of menarche was predicted by low father parental involvement as well as accessibility. Sex debut, age at first pregnancy, age at first child, and parental investment were not significantly predicted by father parental involvement as well as accessibility. Sexual partnering was significantly predicted by total father parental involvement. Total number of offspring was also significantly predicted by total father parental involvement and availability.