A socio-cultural perspective to education retention in multicultural contexts of rural secondary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria : exploring inviting classroom pedagogies.
Agbomeji, Ayinde Mojeed Oladele.
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Globally, the issue of school low retention rates or high attrition rates among the learners has been described as a challenge confronting the education sector. Though the number of learners’ enrollment seems to be on the high side in terms of school access, school retention rates are declining. A body of knowledge exists regarding the causative factors for learners’ dropping out of school; however, there is still paucity of research regarding the reasons for education retention. This study explored the ‘inviting’ classroom pedagogies to understand learners’ education retention from a socio-cultural perspective in a multicultural context of four rural secondary schools in Alimosho Local Council, Lagos State in Nigeria. The study design is a qualitative case study, designed within an interpretive paradigm. Data generation strategies included focus group discussions with learners, individual interviews with participating teachers, and workshop sessions with parents drawn from the areas where the four schools are located. Furthermore, classroom observations were conducted, and analysis of documents such as learners’ lesson notebooks, teachers’ lesson notes, school attendance registers was done. Using Bernstein’s theory of pedagogic discourse as an analytical framework, the generated data was analysed using the qualitative methods of analysis. The key findings reveal that socio-cultural factors still prevail in the communities, and that within a number of cultural festivals, cultural education is delivered. Alongside the cultural education, formal education is offered in the schools; however, in its weakened form as teachers have inadequate content knowledge and there are inadequate resources. Moreover, the school environment is hostile to the girls in particular. Therefore, the parents and learners prefer cultural education to formal education. The thesis argues for the inviting classroom pedagogies model, in the formal education schooling system, that integrates knowledge and methodologies used in cultural education and the learner-centred methods of formal education. Accordingly, the product will be a learner who remains at school until completion, has a clearer career path, and is socially competent.
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