Now showing items 61-80 of 220

    • Early sexual debut among young men in rural South Africa: heightened vulnerability to sexual risk? 

      Harrison, Abigail.; Cleland, J.; Gouws, Eleanor.; Frohlich, Janet A. (BMJ publishing group., 2005-06)
      Objective: This report examines early sexual debut (<age 15) among young men in rural South Africa including (1) risk behaviours at first sexual experience, and (2) age at first sex as a predictor of later sexual risk. ...
    • Effectiveness and safety of tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral microbicide, for the prevention of HIV infection in women. 

      Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Frohlich, Janet A.; Grobler, Anna Christina.; Baxter, Cheryl.; Mansoor, Leila E.; Kharsany, Ayesha B. M.; Sibeko, Sengeziwe.; Mlisana, Koleka Patience.; Omar, Zaheen.; Gengiah, Tanuja N.; Maarschalk, Silvia.; Arulappan, Natasha.; Mlotshwa, Mukelisiwe.; Morris, Lynn.; Taylor, Douglas. (American Association for the Advancement of Science., 2010-09)
      The Centre for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 trial assessed the effectiveness and safety of a 1% vaginal gel formulation of tenofovir, a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor, for the ...
    • Effects of a reduced dose of Stavudine on the incidence and severity of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected adults in South Africa. 

      Pahuja, Meera.; Grobler, Anna Christina.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Karim, Farina.; Parker, Gary.; Gumede, Sizwe.; Naidoo, Kogieleum. (International Medical Press., 2012)
      BACKGROUND—Although recent WHO guidelines recommend withdrawing stavudine (d4T) from first-line ART therapy, it remains commonly used in resource-constrained settings. In 2006, WHO recommended decreasing the dose of d4T ...
    • Efficacy and safety of an extended nevirapine regimen in infant children of breastfeeding mothers with HIV-1 infection for prevention of postnatal HIV-1 transmission (HPTN 046): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 

      Coovadia, Hoosen Mahomed.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Fowler, Mary Glenn.; Chipato, Tsungai.; Moodley, Dhayendre.; Manji, Karim.; Musoke, Philippa.; Stranix-Chibanda, Lynda.; Chetty, Vani.; Fawzi, Wafaie.; Nakabiito, Clemensia.; Msweli, Lindiwe.; Kisenge, Roderick.; Guay, Laura.; Mwatha, Anthony.; Lynn, Diana J.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Richardson, Paul.; George, Kathleen.; Andrew, Philip.; Motenson, Lynne M.; Zwerski, Sheryl.; Maldonado, Yvonne. (Elsevier., 2012-01-21)
      Background. Nevirapine given once-daily for the first 6, 14, or 28 weeks of life to infants exposed to HIV-1 via breastfeeding reduces transmission through this route compared with single-dose nevirapine at birth or ...
    • Empowering women in human immunodeficiency virus prevention. 

      Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Humphries, Hilton Richard.; Stein, Zena. (Elsevier., 2012-08-01)
      Women comprise one-half of people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in the world, and about 70% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa. Advancing, untreated HIV disease in women has resulted in substantial declines ...
    • Enrolling adolescents in research on HIV and other sensitive Issues: lessons from South Africa. 

      Singh, Jerome Amir.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Mlisana, Koleka Patience.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Gray, Clive M.; Govender, Michele.; Gray, Andrew L. (Plos., 2006-07)
      The article discusses the challenge of enrolling adolescents in HIV studies in South Africa. It is practically impossible in some instances to seek parental consent or to determine who, if anyone, is the legal guardian to ...
    • Epidemiological impact of Tenofovir gel on the HIV epidemic in South Africa. 

      Williams, Brian G.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Gouws, Eleanor. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins., 2011)
      Background: Tenofovir gel, an antiretroviral-based vaginal microbicide, reduced HIV acquisition by 39% in women in a recent randomized controlled clinical trial in South Africa. Methods: To inform policy, we used a dynamical ...
    • Establishing a cohort at high risk of HIV infection in South Africa: challenges and experiences of the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Study. 

      Van Loggerenberg, Francois.; Mlisana, Koleka Patience.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Auld, Sara C.; Morris, Lynn.; Gray, Clive M.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Grobler, Anna Christina.; Barnabas, Nomampondo.; Iriogbe, Itua.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (Plos., 2008)
      Objectives: To describe the baseline demographic data, clinical characteristics and HIV-incidence rates of a cohort at high risk for HIV infection in South Africa as well as the challenges experienced in establishing and ...
    • Evaluation of time to detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in broth culture as a determinant for end points in treatment trials. 

      Weiner, Marc.; Prihoda, Thomas J.; Burman, William.; Johnson, John L.; Goldberg, Stefan.; Padayatchi, Nesri.; Duran, Paula.; Engle, Melissa.; Muzanye, Grace.; Mugerwa, Roy D.; Sturm, A. Willem. (American Society for Microbiology., 2010)
      Development of new treatments for tuberculosis is hampered by the lack of an accurate surrogate end point and the high degree of efficacy of current 6-month regimens. Sputum culture status after 2 months of therapy, a ...
    • Evolution of an HIV glycan–dependent broadly neutralizing antibody epitope through immune escape. 

      Moore, Penny L.; Gray, Elin S.; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt.; Bhiman, Jinal N.; Nonyane, Molati.; Hermanus, Tandile.; Sheward, Daniel.; Bajimaya, Shringkhala.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Tumba, Nancy L.; Ping, Li-Hua.; Ngandu, Nobubelo K.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Swanstrom, Ronald.; Seaman, Michael S.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Morris, Lynn. (Nature Publishing Group., 2012-11)
      Neutralizing antibodies are likely to play a crucial part in a preventative HIV-1 vaccine. Although efforts to elicit broadly cross-neutralizing (BCN) antibodies by vaccination have been unsuccessful, a minority of individuals ...
    • Expanding HIV surveillance to include TB patients in resource-limited settings with a generalized epidemic. 

      Padayatchi, Nesri.; Stiefvater, E.; Naidoo, K.; Naidoo, K.; Ndung'u, Thumbi.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha. (International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease., 2009-12-01)
      Screening of antenatal clinic attendees is central to monitoring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, recent evidence suggests that declining fertility rates are affecting the reliability of antenatal ...
    • Factors affecting first-month adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults in South Africa. 

      Maqutu, Dikokole.; Zewotir, Temesgen.; North, Delia Elizabeth.; Naidoo, Kogieleum.; Grobler, Anna Christina. (Taylor & Francis co-published with NISC., 2010-09-22)
      This study explores the influence of baseline factors on first-month adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among adults. The study design involved a review of routinely collected patient information in ...
    • Fluidity of HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Responses during Acute and Early Subtype C HIV-1 Infection and Associations with Early Disease Progression. 

      Mlotshwa, Mandla.; Riou, Catherine.; Chopera, Denis.; de Assis Rosa, Debra.; Ntale, Roman.; Treurnicht, Florette K.; Woodman, Zenda.; Werner, Lise.; Van Loggerenberg, Francois.; Mlisana, Koleka Patience.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Gray, Clive M.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (American Society for Microbiology, 2010)
      Deciphering immune events during early stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is critical for understanding the course of disease. We characterized the hierarchy of HIV-1-specific T-cell gamma ...
    • The future role of rectal and vaginal microbicides to prevent HIV infection in heterosexual populations: implications for product development and prevention. 

      Boily, Marie-Claude.; Dimitrov, Dobromir.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Masse, Benoıt. (BMJ publishing group., 2011)
      Objectives. To compare the potential impact of rectal (RMB), vaginal (VMB) and bi-compartment (RVMB) (applied vaginally and protective during vaginal and anal intercourse) microbicides to prevent HIV in various heterosexual ...
    • Gender-sensitive reporting in medical research. 

      Heidari, Shirin.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Auerbach, Judith D.; Buitendijk, Simone E.; Cahn, Pedro.; Curno, Mirjam J.; Hankins, Catherine.; Katabira, Elly.; Kippax, Susan.; Marlink, Richard.; Marsh, Joan.; Marusic, Ana.; Nass, Heidi M.; Montaner, Julio.; Pollitzer, Elizabeth.; Ruiz-Cantero, Maria Teresa.; Sherr, Lorraine.; Sow, Papa Salif.; Squires, Kathleen.; Wainberg, Mark A. (BioMed Central., 2012-03)
      Sex and gender differences influence the health and wellbeing of men and women. Although studies have drawn attention to observed differences between women and men across diseases, remarkably little research has ...
    • Genital tract inflammation during early HIV-infection predicts higher plasma viral load set point in women. 

      Roberts, Lindi.; Passmore, Jo-Ann.; Mlisana, Koleka Patience.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Little, Francesca.; Bebell, Lisa M.; Walzl, Gerhard.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Woodman, Zenda.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (Oxford University Press., 2011)
      Background. The biggest challenge in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevention in Africa is the high HIV-1 burden in young women. In macaques, proinflammatory cytokine production in the genital tract is necessary ...
    • Genocide: burden of proof and inaction is costing lives in Sudan. 

      Singh, Jerome Amir. (Elsevier, 2004-07-17)
      No abstract available.
    • Global epidemiology of HIV-AIDS. 

      Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Gouws, Eleanor.; Baxter, Cheryl. (WB Saunders., 2007-03-01)
      HIV, the cause of AIDS, has in the 25 years since its discovery spread rapidly to every region in the world [1]. To date, more than 65 million people have been infected with HIV and about 25 million people have died ...
    • The global HIV epidemic: current status and challenges. 

      Abdool Karim, Quarraisha. (Current Medicine Group., 2013-06)
      Three decades after the first reported cases of AIDS we have within our reach sufficient evidence to substantially alter the HIV epidemic at a country level regardless of mode of transmission of HIV. There are a growing ...
    • Grand challenges in global health : community engagement in research in developing countries. 

      Tindana, Paulina O.; Singh, Jerome Amir.; Tracy, C. Shawn.; Upshur, Ross E. G.; Daar, Abdallah S.; Singer, Peter A.; Frohlich, Janet A.; Lavery, James V. (Plos., 2007)
      The authors argue that there have been few systematic attempts to determine the effectiveness of community engagement in research.