Housing delivery systems : an evaluation of public-private partnerships towards provision of adequate housing for the middle-income group in Lagos Nigeria.
This research thesis examined the applicability of the enablement paradigm in the public-private partnership (PPP) of housing delivery systems (HDS) in Lagos among middle-income groups using the periods of changing historic conditions as baseline for the analysis. Nigeria’s postdemocratic Housing and Urban Development Policy for the first time in 2002 recognized the formal private sector as a major stakeholder in its framework. This recognition was in line with the World Bank’s policy recommendation for governments to create enabling environment for private sector participation in housing provision. The major changes by this policy were the grant of access to land with ownership tenure and access to housing finance with low interest rate. This thesis underscores the failure of the Housing and Urban Development Policy framework in Nigeria to achieve real gains in housing delivery. By unbundling the determinants of HDS in Lagos, this research identified the universal objectives of housing delivery in terms of the quantity and quality of housing and its environmental quality. The findings from this research work identified significant correlation between failures in government policies and poor stakeholders’ delineation and roles. The study further associated stakeholder’s delineation and role to PPP optimization: By so, identified PPP as the fulcrum for resource, process and social optimization towards achieving AHD. Through an extensive analysis of historic conditions, theories and policies nationally and internationally, this research drew relevant lessons which informed its conceptual departure for unbundling PPP within HDS. It also relied on empirical data obtained from quantitative and qualitative research instruments drawn from four estate typologies and three categorized stakeholder’s respondents’ frame it used in evaluating HDS. In its contribution, this study developed a project lifecycle framework for housing development, a proposal for PPP effectiveness and an Adequacy Evaluation Technique (AET). Common to these models was the delineation of the universal objectives of housing from which the 3-Qfactor of housing quantity, and quality and the quality of housing environment emanated as a measure of value added contribution. By this, the study established a departure from previous architectural approaches which promised value satisfaction as a functional derivative of design. Through these models, PPP can be designed at the architectural and operational levels towards achieving AHD through the window of the universal objective of housing delivery; and can be evaluated for functional satisfaction and real value (return on investment) based on assessment of profitability of housing development actors/partners. The second major contribution is the delineation of stakeholders in three dimensions namely, the household, the housing development actor/partner which reflects changing roles and circumstances and the housing development experts. Of emphasis are the changing roles and circumstances that this study is able to delineate from its literature and field work through an understanding of the social focus groups which exist within the Lagos settings. This study in conclusion emphasizes the need for delineating stakeholders’ roles contextually as a pre-condition to initiating partnerships. It also posits that there is need to deduce all resources, processes and social context as the framework for PPP before initiating partnerships. It established that, current policy practice already targets the middle-income in its use of PPP, and this can be extended to other social income groups and that the basis for the utilization of PPP should stem from an understanding of specific application of the three-step adequacy evaluation technique (AET) developed by this study as a relevant tool for evaluating the adequacy of housing development projects.