The development of instrumentation for the direct measurement of heat loss from man in a normal working mode.
Based on a theoretical analysis of the heat transfer process between the human body and its environment, graphs are presented for determining the theoretical skin surface temperatures and sweat rates as a function of the physiological conductance, under certain assumed environmental conditions with regard to air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. In addition, the development of unique measuring techniques for the direct measurement of the evaporative and radiative heat transfer rates between a human body in a natural working position and its environment as well as the development of a low-cos~ radiometer for the measurement of the emissivity and temperature of human skin are described. The heat loss measuring equipment was installed in the horizontal test section of the climatic chamber of the Human Sciences Laboratory of the Chamber of Mines. Basically the evaporative heat loss measuring system consists of two air-sampling probes, for sampling the air on the upstream and downstream sides of the body , a double circuit heat exchanger, for equalising the dry- bulb temperatures of the two air samples and a differential humidity- measuring system incorporating electrical resistance hygrometero, for measuring the difference in specific humidity between the two air samples. In addition, a steam generator is provided for introducing a known amount of steam at a predetermined rate into the wake of the body. Since the output of the humidity-measuring system is linearly related to the evaporative heat loss rate, the unknown rate of evaporation of moisture from the human body can be determined relatively easily from a knowledge of the respective outputs of the humidity-measuring system due to the moisture evaporation rate of the human body and the known vapour production rate by the steam generator. The direct- measuring instrument for determining the radiation energy exchange rate of a working subject is in the form of a rotating hoop. The inside and outside surfaces of the hoop are lined with thermal radiation-sensing elements, so connected as to measure the net radiation energy exchange between the subject and the surroundings. The hoop integrates over the circular strip formed by the elements and upon rotation, integrates the radiation over the total 4n surface enveloping the subject . While the interposition of a surface between the body and its surroundings must of necessity influence the radiation exchange, the method introduces a small surface only . The significance of the evaporative and radiative heat loss measuring techniques which were successfully used in animate studies, is reflected in the, hitherto unknown, accuracy regarding partial calorimetric studies . The low- cost radiometer for measuring the skin temperature and emissivity is equipped with two non-selective thermal radiation detectors in the form of semi-conductor thermocouples. The one radiation-sensing element faces a built-in reference black body. The other detector, which can be temperature controlled, is used to detect the incoming radiation from the target. The output of the radiation-sensing elements which is sufficiently high to be measured on a recorder without the use of a chopper-amplifier system, can either be measured differentially or the output of the radiation-sensing element facing the target can be measured separately; for the purpose of temperature and emissivity measurements, respectively. The unique facility of being able to vary the temperature of the radiation detector enabled a new method of determining the emissivity of a surface to be developed. As a result, accurate measurements of the emissivities of samples of excised skin could be carried out. An improvement in the response of the radiometer would, however, be necessary for the rapid determination of the emissivity of . living skin by this means. The accuracy with which surface temperatures could be determined by means of the radiometer compared favourably with more sophisticated radiometers.