The effective management of social change in the South African pharmaceutical industry.
Kriel, Gustav Peter.
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The purpose of the study was to find causality for poor social change in the pharmaceutical industry in South Africa. Top, middle, and lower-level management respondents, including the CEOs, were studied in 11 pharmaceutical manufacturing companies. Human resources managers selected the participants randomly in such a way as to ensure a 60%-40% split between affirmees and non-affirmees. Participants responded to three questionnaires: the leadership questionnaire to determine if effective or appropriate leadership styles were being used with the respondents given their levels of readiness (ability and willingness to do the required tasks), the organisational climate questionnaire to determine what areas of the companies needed improvement, and the social change questionnaire to determine the problematic aspects of social change within the companies. Participants completed the questionnaires during a designated 45-minute period in their respective company headquarters. A clinical psychologist was in attendance to answer any questions. Prior to participating, respondents received cover letters, and the psychologist provided detailed explanations of the study. The main findings were (a) a mismatch in leadership style in affirmee-led organisations that was normally problematic; (b) differences in existing organisations compared to desired organisations; and (c) problems in the dimensions of support and attitude toward change in the mismatch group, which was the affirmee-led organisations. The conclusion was that, although external factors should be the drivers for transformation and also affect leadership style, leaders must be able to adapt their style to fit the readiness level of their followers. In addition, a proposed model for transformation in the pharmaceutical industry, based on the findings from the study and the literature review, was presented.