A comparative analysis of the civil liability and fund conventions, Tovalop and Cristal, the U.S. Federal Oil Pollution Act and U.S. state legislation, as legal mechanisms regulating compensation for tanker- source oil pollution damage as of February, 1994.
The purpose of this thesis is to explain and evaluate the law concerning compensation for tanker-source oil pollution damage under three different liability regimes: (a) the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969 and the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971 including the Protocols of 1976, 1984 and 1992 to these Conventions. (b) the Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement concerning Liability for Oil Pollution (TOVALOP) and the Contract Regarding a Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution (CRISTAL) as at the 20th February, 1994. (c) the United States Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and U.S. State Legislation. In this context the thesis explains inter alia the evolution of law from fault to no-fault liability and from limited to increasingly limitless liability. The thesis examines the notion of damage eligible for compensation, for example, ecological and pure economic damage. Conclusions are reached as to the role increasingly stringent liability provisions may have on the quality of the tanker-process. The impact that the U. S. Oil Pollution Act 1990, and associated U.S. state legislation may have on the international pollution regimes covered by the various international Conventions and associated voluntary agreements is also discussed.