Susceptibility and resistance to insecticides among malaria vector mosquitoes in Mozambique.
Casimiro, Sonia Lina Rodrigues.
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Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes reduces the efficacy of insecticide in killing and can therefore cause a major problem for malaria vector control by insecticides. In Mozambique, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus was first detected in December 1999 in the southern corner of Maputo Province. Since then, various collections have been made at selected sites throughout the country and WHO standard susceptibility tests and biochemical assays were conducted to determine the susceptibility status and the major resistance mechanisms, in the Fl generation of field collected mosquitoes. Three malaria vector species: Anopheles funestus s.s., Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis were identified in this study by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and their distributions plotted. The susceptibility data indicate that the Anopheles funestus s.s population in southern Mozambique is widely resistant to pyrethroid and with low levels of carbamate resistance evident at six localities. No resistance to organophosphate and DDT was observed at any study sites. Biochemical tests indicate the presence of an altered acetlylcholinesterase in all collection localities with the exception of Massinga district. Elevated esterase activity with substrate a-naphthyl acetate were detect in Boane with a probable role in organophosphate resistance. Elevated GST were detected in Boane, Moamba and Catembe. Very low levels monooxygenase titres were registered in all the localities in Mozambique, which suggest that this resistance mechanism is not operating in these areas. Pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles gambiae complex was detected only in Anopheles arabiensis from one locality. No resistant to other groups of insecticide were observed. Altered acetlylcholinesterases were registered in all collection localities and in both species: Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis. Elevated esterase with substrate a-naphthyl acetate were detected in Anopheles arabiensis at only one locality. Elevated GSTs were detected at all localities and in both species. The implications of the findings for malaria vector control in Mozambique are discussed.