Developing baseline data for monitoring and evaluation of land registration implementation in Rwanda : a case study of Gasabo district.
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Various literature suggest that securing access to land and guaranteeing land tenure security is essential for diverse land-based livelihoods and remains a prerequisite for sustainable agriculture, economic growth and poverty reduction. Secure land tenure is recognized as a key element to meeting the MDG target 11 to achieve significant improvement in the lives of 100 million slums dwellers by 2020. In the case of Rwanda, land tenure reform involves changes in land tenure systems from traditional and customary arrangements to more simple, modern and streamlined land tenure mechanisms guided by a core land registration system which is affordable, efficient and participatory. This development towards change in land registration patterns requires strong instruments for monitoring and evaluation and impact assessment of land registration implementation. The main purpose of this research is to develop key indicators to be used as baseline monitoring and evaluation instruments for land registration implementation in Rwanda, the shortage of time having limited the case study to one, but important District of Rwanda: Gasabo. The conceptual argument follows the logic of thinking that, when land tenure, symbolized by different values is supported by formal or legal land registration procedures, it gives it a dimension of power, insurance, guarantee and security that can be symbolized by different indicators measurable as variables. Seven key indicators were identified. To test the defined baseline indicators for validity, data was obtained from a sample of 150 respondents using a cluster sampling technique and structured interviews. The findings demonstrate the defined indicators could be measured and the quality of measurement (validity) established from statistical behavior of the variables. The results have shown that none of sampled households has a land title, this effect being recognized as a major hindrance to tenure security and to fruitful investment in land. Only those few who had other kinds of documents confirming rights to land, although of lesser weight, were eligible to a loan from a bank. The results have shown that the beneficiaries of bank loans have improved their income by being involved in land transactions and by acquiring a new land as well as buying domestic animals. The results also show that these interactions have brought a significant improvement in land productivity and consequently, raised income. Although household date showed low rate of land disputes, secondary data at district level showed significantly higher rates of occurrence and very low rates of dispute resolution. It is generally observed that land disputes could be avoided or solved if sufficient operational, legal and institutional instruments for disputes resolution and land registration are in place.
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