Sensible heat flux for estimating evaporation.
Savage, Michael John.
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The focus of the research is on investigations of various methods for obtaining sensible heat flux (H) for estimating evaporation. The key for this approach is the application of the shortened energy balance equation, and in the case of methods based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST), such as surface-layer scintillometrv and temperature variance with adjusted for stability using air temperature skewness, and surface renewal (SR), die iterative procedures. The application of the shortened energy balance requires that errors associated with measurement of net irradiance (Rnet) and soil heat flux (S) are kept to a minimum To this end. methodology for the calibration of net radiometers for both the infrared and short wave irradiances receive attention. A field study attempts to quantify the error in soil heat flux measurement for a mesic grassland. A standard, convenient and accurate method for calibrating net radiometers would assist in unravelling reasons for the perplexing lack of surface energy balance closure when employing the eddy covariance (EC) flux estimation method as well as improve on the accuracy of the energy balance residual method for estimating evaporation. A relatively inexpensive, accurate and quick laboratory method, based on physical theory, for non-steady radiative conditions above a large water-heated or water-cooled radiator containing circulated water, with surface-embedded thermocouples is used to obtain reproducible net radiometer calibration factor's for the infrared waveband for a wide range in net irradiance. When applied, the method would reduce error m the most important term of the shortened energy balance and assist in energy balance closure aspects of EC measurements. The SLS method, reliant on MOST, is used for estimating a really-averaged H for a mesic grassland for a 30-month period. Comparisons with EC measurements feature prominently in this unique study. These comparisons include using different MOST procedures and the influence of the Bowen ratio on SLS measurement: of if is investigated. Furthermore, since there are reports in the literature that the EC method may underestimate H and or latent energy flux (LE), resulting in the shortened energy balance not being closed, effort is devoted to this aspect. Other methods used for comparison purposes are the traditional Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB), SR, TV and ETo (grass reference) methods. The TV and SLS and/or EC measurements of H are compared above three contrasting canopy surfaces. It is shown that other high frequency air temperature-based methods, for example, for the first time the TV method with adjustment for skewness, may pave the way for evaporation stations from which real-time and sub-hourly estimates may be obtained relatively inexpensively. Another area of research that receives attention is the placement height of EC instruments above short-canopy surfaces and a spectral analysis of the vertical wind speed and some temperature measurement: for close-canopv placement heights. The SR method is used to estimate, for the first time, open-water evaporation. The ideal SR method applied above canopies is the most inexpensive micrometeorological method for estimating H, but the SR weighting factor a needs to be determined using EC and for this reason, the TV method with adjustment for skewness was investigated. Finally, a unique implementation of SR uses an iterative method for calculating H. A similar iterative procedure is applied for MOST and ETo calculations.