Echocardiographic features of the complications of infective endocarditis, with special reference to patients with HIV.
Purpose: The aim was to determine the echocardiographic features of patients with infective endocarditis, and to compare the findings in HIV positive versus HIV negative patients. Methods: This was a prospective study, conducted over three years using the modified Duke criteria in diagnoses. A control group of age-matched patients with clinical and echocardiographic evidence of valvular regurgitation, who did not satisfy the criteria and who underwent surgery was used in comparison. Results: During this period 91 patients were screened for infective endocarditis. 77 satisfied the criteria for a definite diagnosis of IE. Blood cultures were positive in 46% cases. The commonest organism was S. aureus. Most patients had advanced valve disruption with heart failure and a high peri-operative mortality. The clinical features in the two groups of patients was similar. The incidence of echocardiographic complications was 50.6% in the whole group. Except for leaflet aneurysms in four HIV positive cases, complications were not more frequent in this group. Conclusion: There was a high rate of culture negative cases in this study, probably related to prior antibiotic usage; in this setting the modified Duke criteria have diagnostic limitations. There was no difference in the clinical presentation of infective endocarditis between HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Leaflet aneurysms were more common in the HIV positive patients.