A multi-objective particle swarm optimized fuzzy logic congestion detection and dual explicit notification mechanism for IP networks.
Nyirenda, Clement Nthambazale.
MetadataShow full item record
The Internet has experienced a tremendous growth over the past two decades and with that growth have come severe congestion problems. Research efforts to alleviate the congestion problem can broadly be classified into three groups: Cl) Router based congestion detection; (2) Generation and transmission of congestion notification signal to the traffic sources; (3) End-to-end algorithms which control the flow of traffic between the end hosts. This dissertation has largely addressed the first two groups which are basically router initiated. Router based congestion detection mechanisms, commonly known as Active Queue Management (AQM), can be classified into two groups: conventional mathematical analytical techniques and fuzzy logic based techniques. Research has shown that fuzzy logic techniques are more effective and robust compared to the conventional techniques because they do not rely on the availability of a precise mathematical model of Internet. They use linguistic knowledge and are, therefore, better placed to handle the complexities associated with the non-linearity and dynamics of the Internet. In spite of all these developments, there still exists ample room for improvement because, practically, there has been a slow deployment of AQM mechanisms. In the first part of this dissertation, we study the major AQM schemes in both the conventional and the fuzzy logic domain in order to uncover the problems that have hampered their deployment in practical implementations. Based on the findings from this study, we model the Internet congestion problem as a multi-objective problem. We propose a Fuzzy Logic Congestion Detection (FLCD) which synergistically combines the good characteristics of the fuzzy approaches with those of the conventional approaches. We design the membership functions (MFs) of the FLCD algorithm automatically by using Multi-objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO), a population based stochastic optimization algorithm. This enables the FLCD algorithm to achieve optimal performance on all the major objectives of Internet congestion control. The FLCD algorithm is compared with the basic Fuzzy Logic AQM and the Random Explicit Marking (REM) algorithms on a best effort network. Simulation results show that the FLCD algorithm provides high link utilization whilst maintaining lower jitter and packet loss. It also exhibits higher fairness and stability compared to its basic variant and REM. We extend this concept to Proportional Differentiated Services network environment where the FLCD algorithm outperforms the traditional Weighted RED algorithm. We also propose self learning and organization structures which enable the FLCD algorithm to achieve a more stable queue, lower packet losses and UDP traffic delay in dynamic traffic environments on both wired and wireless networks. In the second part of this dissertation, we present the congestion notification mechanisms which have been proposed for wired and satellite networks. We propose an FLCD based dual explicit congestion notification algorithm which combines the merits of the Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) and the Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) mechanisms. In this proposal, the ECN mechanism is invoked based on the packet marking probability while the BECN mechanism is invoked based on the BECN parameter which helps to ensure that BECN is invoked only when congestion is severe. Motivated by the fact that TCP reacts to tbe congestion notification signal only once during a round trip time (RTT), we propose an RTT based BECN decay function. This reduces the invocation of the BECN mechanism and resultantly the generation of reverse traffic during an RTT. Compared to the traditional explicit notification mechanisms, simulation results show that the new approach exhibits lower packet loss rates and higher queue stability on wired networks. It also exhibits lower packet loss rates, higher good-put and link utilization on satellite networks. We also observe that the BECN decay function reduces reverse traffic significantly on both wired and satellite networks while ensuring that performance remains virtually the same as in the algorithm without BECN traffic reduction.