Design of advanced materials and nano delivery approaches for enhancing activity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Omolo, Calvin Andeve.
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Infectious diseases, including bacterial infections, continue to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality globally, antimicrobial resistance has further made them fatal. Limitations of conventional dosage forms have been found to be one of the contributing factors to antimicrobial resistance. Novel nano delivery systems are showing potential to combat antimicrobial resistance. The search for novel materials for efficient delivery of antibiotics is an active research area. The aim of the study was to design and synthesize advanced materials and explore nano-based strategies for preparations of novel drug delivery systems to treat SA and MRSA infections. In this study two novel materials; a linear polymer dendrimer hybrid star polymer (3-mPEA) comprising of a generation one poly (ester-amine) dendrimer (G1-PEA) and copolymer of methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-b-PCL) and oleic acid based quaternary lipid (QL) were synthesized and characterized and Poloxamer 188 (P188) material available in the market were employed to formulate three nano drug delivery systems for efficient and targeted delivery of antibiotics. The synthesized materials and the drug delivery system were found to be biosafe after exhibiting cell viability above 75% in all the cell lines tested on using MTT assay. The formulated nano based systems were evaluated for sizes, polydispersity indices (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), surface morphology, drug release, in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity. Nanovesicles were formulated from 3-mPEA and they had sizes, PDI, ZP and entrapment efficiency of 52.48 ± 2.6 nm, 0.103 ± 0.047, -7.3 ± 1.3 mV and 76.49 ± 2.4%. respectively. QL lipid was employed to formulate vancomycin (VCM) loaded liposomes with Oleic acid based ‘On’ and ‘Off’” pH responsive switches for infection site and intracellular bacteria targeting. They were found to have the size of 98.88 ± 01.92 at pH 7.4. and exhibited surface charge switching from negative at pH 7.4 to positive charge accompanied by faster drug release at pH 6.0. Fusidic acid nanosuspension (FA-NS) with size, PDI and ZP of 265 ± 2.25 nm, 0.158 ± 0.026 and -16.9 ± 0.794 mV respectively was formulated from P188. The drug release profile from both the nanovesicles and liposomes was found to have sustained release. In vitro antibacterial activity for the nanovesicles, FA-NS and liposomes showed 8, 6 and 4-fold better activity at pH 7.4, while the liposome being a pH responsive antibacterial system at pH 6 showed 8- and 16- fold better activity against both Methicillin susceptible (MSSA) and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) respectively when compared with the bare drugs. An in vivo BALB/c mice, skin infection model revealed that treatment with VCM-loaded nanovesicles, liposomes and FA-Ns significantly reduced the MRSA burden compared to bare drugs and untreated groups. There was a 20, 6.33 and 76-fold reduction in the MRSA load in mice skin treated with nanovesicles, liposomes and FA-NS respectively compared to those treated with bare VCM and fusidic acid. In summary, synthesized material showed to be biosafe and potential for the development of nano-based drug delivery systems of antibiotics against bacterial infections. The data from this study has resulted in one book chapter and 3 first authored and 3 co-authored research publications.