Progress towards the synthesis of Indolizidine alkaloid 223AB
Janse van Rensburg, Caryl Kerith Alice
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It has been shown that alkaloids from various sources are vital as lead compounds in medicinal research and thus also the efficient synthesis of these. With the goal of developing a general synthetic route that can potentially access pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, quinolizidine and possibly lehmizidine alkaloid skeletons, a modified route that has been shown to produce pyrrolizidines was employed towards the synthesis of indolizidine alkaloid 223AB. Within this synthesis, a 6-endo-dig hydroamination-cyclization step was attempted for construction of the bicyclic system. For this purpose, a selection of titanium-based catalysts were synthesized in order to determine their regiochemical outcome. For the purpose of investigating ab initio the mechanism of regioselective hydroamination, the skills and methods involved in computational chemistry were acquired through a study into amide rotational barriers: A range of novel 2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl dimethylcarbamates were synthesised containing either an oxygen or sulphur in the α-position to the carbonyl or thiocarbonyl group of the amide moiety. Microwave synthesis was essential for the successful synthesis of some of the sulphur containing carbamates. The barriers to internal rotation of each of these compounds were investigated as follows. Variable Temperature and Exchange Spectroscopy NMR was performed on these compounds and the barrier to free amide rotation was calculated. Each of these compounds were also modeled ab initio and the gas phase barrier to rotation calculated. These three sets of data were compared and the influence of the α-heteroatom on rotation for amides and thioamides evaluated.