A methodology for optimal placement of distributed generation on meshed networks to reduce power losses for time variant loads.
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In the 21st century, humanity’s thirst for an energy intensive lifestyle has led to the saturated expansion of the modern day power system. As the power system expands, centralised generation philosophies are rapidly being constrained due to increased technical losses. The inability to balance technical, economic and environmental conventional generation needs place further strain on the power system. This constraint has catalysed the emergence of decentralized renewable energy sources. Distributed generation supplements the electrical needs of a rapidly expanding demand for energy and minimises the adverse environmental impact of fossil fuel power stations. Distributed Generation is defined as electric power generation units connected close to load centres. Distributed generation can be classified according to rating, purpose, technology, environmental impact, mode of operation and penetration. Optimally connected distributed generation have many advantages over classically supplied power systems. Such as reduced power losses, improve voltage support and reliability to the system. Deferring network upgrades by relieving congestion and reducing greenhouse gas emission being some of the benefits of integrated distributed generation. This research delivers an optimal placement method of solar photovoltaic distributed generation on a 56 bus utility network to reduce power losses. Critical electrical factors for optimal placement of distributed generation to reduce power losses are defined. A practical loss optimization technique for optimal placement of distributed generation on meshed networks is defined. The technique follows an approach of ranking, profiling, activating, evaluating and finally selecting the optimally placed distributed resources. The importance of reactive power compensation is examined when integrating distributed generation onto meshed networks. Pre and post distributed solar photovoltaic generation placement shows the worsening phase angles leading to poorer power factors. The research demonstrates the impact of penetration and concentration of distributed generation on power system losses. Highly concentrated placement of non-dispatched distributed generation units lead to increase in power losses. Results conclude that the placement of distributed generation for loss reduction on a meshed power system is optimally located to match load-profiled centres. This research is significant as power utility engineers can now benefit from a wider range of skills to assess the impact of DG connections.
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