The effect of HIV infection on the management of end-stage renal failure among patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Ndlovu, Kwazi Celani Zwakele.
MetadataShow full item record
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is cost effective, easy to learn, and requires no complex equipment, thus, is well-suited as a home dialysis modality in areas with distant or limited dialysis facilities. We aimed to evaluate the effects of HIV infection on CAPD outcomes in dialysis-requiring end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The first report (Chapter 2) evaluated the effects of HIV-infection on primary end points of mortality and catheter failure, and primary morbidity outcomes of first peritonitis and hospital admissions at one year. HIV infection was not shown to adversely influence catheter failure rates or patency; however, uncontrolled HIV infection was associated with increased relative risk of mortality, first peritonitis, and hospital admissions. The second report (Chapter 3) evaluated the effects of HIV infection on all peritonitis episodes, including relapses and subsequent episodes at 18 months. HIV infection was associated with increased risk for overall peritonitis and peritonitis relapse. Although peritonitis was also associated with adverse catheter failure outcomes, HIV infection was not shown to result in significantly increased catheter failure rates at 18 months. The third report (Chapter 4) evaluated the effects of HIV infection on nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcal peritonitis, and catheter infection rates. HIV infection was shown to be a risk factor for methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal colonisation, and that it can increase the risks of coagulase-negative staphylococcal peritonitis and S. aureus catheter infections in association with S. aureus nasal carriage. The fourth report (Chapter 5) evaluated shedding of HIV-1 particles into CAPD effluents. HIV particles were shown to be shed in detectable amounts into CAPD effluents even in patients with suppressed plasma viral load, raising concerns of a localised sanctuary site and potential infectivity of HIV-positive CAPD patients on a full complement of antiretroviral therapy. The thesis contributes to our understanding of the morbidity and mortality associated with uncontrolled HIV infection in ESRD patients on CAPD, the shedding of HIV-1 particles into CAPD effluents, and the resistance profiles of S. aureus colonisers and the organism patterns that are likely to cause infection, which may assist in guiding appropriate antibiotic therapy and prophylaxis.