Now showing items 1-20 of 33

    • Adaptive changes in HIV-1 subtype C proteins during early infection are driven by changes in HLA-associated immune pressure. 

      Treurnicht, Florette.; Seoighe, Cathal.; Martin, Darren P.; Wood, N.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; De Assis Rosa, Debra.; Bredell, H.; Woodman, Zenda.; Hide, Winston.; Mlisana, Koleka Patience.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Gray, Clive M.; Williamson, Carolyn. (Elsevier., 2009)
      It is unresolved whether recently transmitted human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) have genetic features that specifically favour their transmissibility. To identify potential “transmission signatures”, we compared 20 ...
    • Anaemia in acute HIV-1 Subtype C infection. 

      Mlisana, Koleka.; Auld, Sara C.; Grobler, Anna Christina.; Van Loggerenberg, Francois.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Iriogbe, Itua.; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (Plos., 2008-02)
      Background: The high prevalence of anaemia and the increased morbidity and mortality associated with anaemia during AIDS has been well described yet there has been little information about anaemia and changes in haemoglobin ...
    • Association of HIV-Specific and Total CD8+ T Memory Phenotypes in Subtype C HIV-1 Infection with Viral Set Point. 

      Burgers, Wendy A.; Riou, Catherine.; Mlotshwa, Mandla.; Maenetje, Pholo.; De Assis Rosa, Debra.; Brenchley, Jason.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Douek, Daniel C.; Koup, Richard.; Roederer, Mario.; De Bruyn, Guy.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Gray, Clive M. (The American Association of Immunologists, Inc., 2009)
      Understanding early immunological events during HIV-1 infection that may set the course of disease progression is important for identifying correlates of viral control. This study explores the association of differentiation ...
    • The C3-V4 region is a major target of autologous neutralizing antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C Infection. 

      Moore, Penny L.; Gray, Elin S.; Choge, Isaac A.; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Morris, Lynn. (American Society for Microbiology., 2008)
      The early autologous neutralizing antibody response in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C infections is often characterized by high titers, but the response is type specific with little to no cross-neutralizing ...
    • CAPRISA 004 tenofovir microbicide trial: no impact of tenofovir gel on the HIV transmission bottleneck. 

      Valley-Omar, Ziyaad.; Sibeko, Sengeziwe.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Goodier, Sarah.; Werner, Lise.; Arney, Leslie.; Naranbhai, Vivek.; Treurnicht, Florette.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Bandawe, Gama.; Swanstrom, Ronald.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Williamson, Carolyn. (Oxford University Press., 2011)
      Alterations of the genital mucosal barrier may influence the number of viruses transmitted from a human immunodeficiency virus–infected source host to the newly infected individual. We used heteroduplex tracking assay and ...
    • Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing. 

      Mlisana, Koleka.; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E.; Werner, Lise.; Feinstein, Addi.; Van Loggerenberg, Francois.; Naicker, Nivashnee.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Garrett, Nigel. (Plos., 2012)
      Background. Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, ...
    • Comparison of viral env proteins from acute and chronic infections with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 identifies differences in glycosylation and CCR5 utilization and suggests a new strategy for immunogen design. 

      Ping, Li-Hua.; Joseph, Sarah B.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Kincer, Laura P.; Treurnicht, Florette.; Arney, Leslie.; Ojeda, Suany.; Zhang, Ming.; Keys, Jessica.; Potter, E. Lake.; Chu, Haitao.; Moore, Penny L.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Maria.; Iyer, Shilpa.; Jabara, Cassandra.; Kirchherr, Jennifer.; Mapanje, Clement.; Ngandu, Nobubelo K.; Seoighe, Cathal.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Gao, Feng.; Tang, Yuyang.; Labranche, Celia.; Lee, Benhur.; Saville, Andrew.; Vermeulen, Marion.; Fiscus, Susan.; Morris, Lynn.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Haynes, Barton F.; Shaw, George M.; Korber, Bette T.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Cohen, Myron.; Montefiori, David C.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Swanstrom, Ronald. (American Society for Microbiology., 2013-04-24)
      Understanding human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission is central to developing effective prevention strategies, including a vaccine.We compared phenotypic and genetic variation in HIV-1 env genes from ...
    • Conserved positive selection signals in HIV-1 gp41 across multiple subtypes and difference in selection signals detectable in gp41 sequences sampled during acute and chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection. 

      Martin, Darren P.; Treurnicht, Florette.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Gama, Bandawe P. (BioMed Central., 2008)
      Background. The high diversity of HIV variants driving the global AIDS epidemic has caused many to doubt whether an effective vaccine against the virus is possible. However, by identifying the selective forces that are ...
    • Decreased incidence of dual infections in South African subtype C-infected women compared to a cohort ten years earlier. 

      Woodman, Zenda.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Treurnicht, Florette.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Thebus, Ruwayida.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Williamson, Carolyn. (Mary Ann Liebert., 2011-11)
      Previously, we determined the incidence of dual infections in a South African cohort and its association with higher viral setpoint. Ten years later, we compare the incidence and impact of dual infections at transmission ...
    • Enrolling adolescents in research on HIV and other sensitive Issues: lessons from South Africa. 

      Singh, Jerome Amir.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Gray, Clive M.; Govender, Michele.; Gray, Andrew L. (Plos., 2006-07)
      The article discusses the challenge of enrolling adolescents in HIV studies in South Africa. It is practically impossible in some instances to seek parental consent or to determine who, if anyone, is the legal guardian to ...
    • Establishing a cohort at high risk of HIV infection in South Africa: challenges and experiences of the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Study. 

      Van Loggerenberg, Francois.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Auld, Sara C.; Morris, Lynn.; Gray, Clive M.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Grobler, Anna Christina.; Barnabas, Nomampondo.; Iriogbe, Itua.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (Plos., 2008)
      Objectives: To describe the baseline demographic data, clinical characteristics and HIV-incidence rates of a cohort at high risk for HIV infection in South Africa as well as the challenges experienced in establishing and ...
    • Evolution of an HIV glycan–dependent broadly neutralizing antibody epitope through immune escape. 

      Moore, Penny L.; Gray, Elin S.; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt.; Bhiman, Jinal N.; Nonyane, Molati.; Hermanus, Tandile.; Sheward, Daniel.; Bajimaya, Shringkhala.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Tumba, Nancy L.; Ping, Li-Hua.; Ngandu, Nobubelo K.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Swanstrom, Ronald.; Seaman, Michael S.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Morris, Lynn. (Nature Publishing Group., 2012-11)
      Neutralizing antibodies are likely to play a crucial part in a preventative HIV-1 vaccine. Although efforts to elicit broadly cross-neutralizing (BCN) antibodies by vaccination have been unsuccessful, a minority of individuals ...
    • Fluidity of HIV-1-Specific T-Cell Responses during Acute and Early Subtype C HIV-1 Infection and Associations with Early Disease Progression. 

      Mlotshwa, Mandla.; Riou, Catherine.; Chopera, Denis.; De Assis Rosa, Debra.; Ntale, Roman.; Treurnicht, Florette.; Woodman, Zenda.; Werner, Lise.; Van Loggerenberg, Francois.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Gray, Clive M.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (American Society for Microbiology, 2010)
      Deciphering immune events during early stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is critical for understanding the course of disease. We characterized the hierarchy of HIV-1-specific T-cell gamma ...
    • Genital tract inflammation during early HIV-infection predicts higher plasma viral load set point in women. 

      Roberts, Lindi.; Passmore, Jo-Ann.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Little, Francesca.; Bebell, Lisa M.; Walzl, Gerhard.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Woodman, Zenda.; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (Oxford University Press., 2011)
      Background. The biggest challenge in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) prevention in Africa is the high HIV-1 burden in young women. In macaques, proinflammatory cytokine production in the genital tract is necessary ...
    • Human immunodeficiency virus-specific gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot assay responses targeting specific regions of the proteome during primary subtype C infection are poor predictors of the course of viremia and set point. 

      Gray, Clive M.; Mlotshwa, Mandla.; Riou, Catherine.; Mathebula, Tiyani.; Mashishi, Tumelo.; Seoighe, Cathal.; Ngandu, Nobubelo K.; De Assis Rosa, Debra.; Van Loggerenberg, Francois.; Morris, Lynn.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen. (American Society for Microbiology., 2008)
      It is unknown whether patterns of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific T-cell responses during acute infection may influence the viral set point and the course of disease. We wished to establish whether the magnitude ...
    • Identification of broadly neutralizing antibody epitopes in 1 the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein using evolutionary models. 

      Lacerda, Miguel.; Moore, Penny L.; Ngandu, Nobubelo K.; Seaman, Michael.; Gray, Elin S.; Murrell, Ben.; Krishnamoorthy, Mohan.; Nonyane, Molati.; Madiga, Maphuti.; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt.; Sheward, Daniel.; Bailer, Robert T.; Gao, Hongmei.; Greene, Kelli M.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Mascola, John R.; Korber, Bette TM.; Montefiori, David C.; Morris, Lynn.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Seoighe, Cathal. (Virology Journal, 2013)
      Background: Identification of the epitopes targeted by antibodies that can neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains can provide important clues for the design of a preventative vaccine. Methods: We have developed a computational ...
    • Increased memory differentiation is associated with decreased polyfunctionality for HIV but not for CMV-specific CD8+ T cells. 

      Riou, Catherine.; Treurnicht, Florette.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Liu, Michael K. P.; Goonetilleke, Nilu.; Koup, Richard.; Roederer, Mario.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; De Bruyn, Guy.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Gray, Clive M.; Burgers, Wendy A. (American Association of Immunologists., 2012-09-15)
      The generation of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, in response to vaccination or natural infection, has been associated with improved protective immunity. However, it is unclear whether the maintenance of polyfunctionality is ...
    • Intersubtype differences in the effect of a rare p24 Gag mutation on HIV-1 replicative fitness. 

      Chopera, Denis.; Cotton, Laura A.; Zawaira, Alexander.; Mann, Jaclyn K.; Ngandu, Nobubelo K.; Ntale, Roman.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Woodman, Zenda.; De Assis Rosa, Debra.; Martin, Eric.; Miura, Toshiyuki.; Pereyra, Florencia.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gray, Clive M.; Martin, Darren P.; Ndung'u, Thumbi.; Brockman, Mark A.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Williamson, Carolyn. (American Society for Microbiology., 2012-12)
      Certain immune-driven mutations in HIV-1, such as those arising in p24Gag, decrease viral replicative capacity. However, the intersubtype differences in the replicative consequences of such mutations have not been explored. ...
    • Limited Neutralizing Antibody Specificities Drive Neutralization Escape in Early HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. 

      Moore, Penny L.; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng.; Lambson, Bronwen E.; Gray, Elin S.; Cave, Eleanor.; Abrahams, Melissa-Rose.; Bandawe, Gama.; Mlisana, Koleka.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Morris, Lynn. (Plos, 2009-09)
      We previously showed that HIV-1 subtype C viruses elicit potent but highly type-specific neutralizing antibodies (nAb) within the first year of infection. In order to determine the specificity and evolution of these ...
    • Multiple pathways of escape from HIV broadly cross-neutralizing V2-dependent antibodies. 

      Moore, Penny L.; Sheward, Daniel.; Nonyane, Molati.; Ranchobe, Nthabeleng.; Hermanus, Tandile.; Gray, Elin S.; Abdool Karim, Salim Safurdeen.; Williamson, Carolyn.; Morris, Lynn. (American Society for Microbiology., 2013-02-13)
      Broadly cross-neutralizing (BCN) antibodies are likely to be critical for an effective HIV vaccine. However, the ontogeny of such antibodies and their relationship with autologous viral evolution is unclear. Here, we ...