Cellular immunity, immune activation and regulation in HIV-1 infected mother-child pairs : what are the determinants of protective immunity.
Moodley-Govender, Eshia S.
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Background: Prevention of Mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a significant challenge in resource-poor settings despite the advances in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. HIV-1 infected individuals are able to achieve viral control naturally, however the underlying mechanisms of immunological control in children remains poorly understood. This study was conducted from 2006 to 2010 to investigate correlates of immune control in HIV-1 clade C infected mother-child pairs in the absence of ARVs. Genotypic and phenotypic viral characteristics, cellular immune responses to HIV-1 and host genetics were characterized and correlated with clinical markers of disease progression. Materials and Methods: To achieve the objectives of the study, three cohorts of mother-child pairs were investigated. The first cohort included 60 untreated mother-child pairs and a further ten uninfected children as controls. The second cohort comprised of ARV treated pairs (n=60). The third cohort consisted of 374 mothers and 374 children (infected, exposed uninfected, HIV negative). Plasma viral loads and absolute CD4+ T cell counts were routinely performed in all three cohorts. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were analyzed by interferon gamma (IFN-γ) enzyme linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assays. Viral replicative fitness was assessed using a green fluorescent protein reporter cell line (GFP).Multi-parameter flowcytometry allowed for the investigation of T cell regulation, exhaustion and activation using CD127/CD25, TIM-3/PD-1 and HLA-DR/CD38 markers respectively. IL-10 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -592 and -1082 were determined by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Plasma IL-10 levels were measured using a luminex assay. Results: To describe the CTL responses elicited to various regions of the HIV proteome in HIV-infected treatment naïve children. Sixty children under one year of age in the untreated cohort were analyzed for CTL responses spanning the HIV genome, for which only 30 had detectable responses. There was no significant difference in viral load between respondersand non-responders (p=0.2799). The responders predominantly targeted Nef (49%), Gag (17%) and Env (14%) regions. Markers of T cell exhaustion and regulation and theirrelationship to markers of disease progression, were next investigated as these parameters may explain the inability of T cells to effectively control HIV infection. T cell phenotyping compared treated, untreated and uninfected subgroups. In infected children, CD8+ T cells were significantly higher for both the inhibitory marker TIM-3 (p=0.001) and exhaustion marker PD-1 (p=0.0001) compared to uninfected children. Median expression of TIM-3 was higher on CD8+ T cells (46%) compared to CD4+ T cells (20%). TIM-3 and PD-1 expression on T cells were maintained at high levels over time. The frequency of absolute Tregs (p=0.0225) were found to be significantly higher in untreated compared to treated children. HLA-DR+CD38+ on CD8+ T cells were significantly up-regulated in untreated children compared to treated (p=0.002) and uninfected children (p=0.0177). HLA-DR+CD38+ was also significantly higher in children less than 6 months compared to older children on CD4+ (p=0.0437) and CD8+ T cells (p=0.00276). Interestingly, we observed a significant negative correlation between magnitude of CTL response and CD25+CD127- (p=0.0202; r=-0.7333) as well as HLA-DR+CD38+ (p=0.0408; r=-0.5516) on CD8+ T cells. IL-10 is an important immunoregulatory cytokine that has been shown to affect the outcome of chronic viral infections. IL-10 polymorphisms have previously been associated with IL-10 levels and HIV-1 outcomes in adults. Polymorphisms associated with different levels of IL-10 production and their relationship with transmission, markers of disease progression and immune responses were next investigated in this mother-child HIV transmission setting. Genetic analysis of IL-10 in cohort three revealed that HIV-1 acquisition was not associated with either IL10 -592 (AA/CA vs CC) or IL10 -1082 (AA/AG vs GG) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPSs). There was a significant association between IL10 -1082 and HIV-1 transmission (p=0.0012). No correlation was observed between IL10 -592 (p=0.4279) or IL10 -1082 SNPs (p=0.6361) and mortality rates in children. IL10 -592C was associated with an elevated magnitude of IFN-γ CD8+ T cell response compared to IL10 -529A (p=0.0071). We found a significant positive correlation between IL-10 plasma levels and viral loads (p=0.0068; r=0.4759) and the ages of the children (p=0.0312; r=0.1737). Conclusion: CD8+ T cell responses and viral fitness did not explain differences in disease progression in selected HIV-1 untreated clade C transmission pairs. T cell activation and regulatory markers influence CTL immune responses resulting in poor clinical outcome. IL10 -1082 polymorphisms may be used as a predictor of HIV-1 transmission. The association between increased IL-10 plasma levels and high viral loads suggest that IL-10 contributes to immune dysfunction in paediatric HIV-1 infection. This study has extended our understanding of immunological and genetic correlates of mother-to-child transmission and disease outcome in ARV naïve (naturally controlling) and HIV treated infected children.
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