A diagnostic quasi-dimensional model of heat transfer and combustion in compression-ignition engines.
Hansen, Alan Christopher.
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Investigations into the combustion of alternative fuels in compression-ignition engines in South Africa have underlined the inadequacies of existing zero-dimensional combustion models. The major aspect of concern in these models was the computation of heat transfer which had been singled out by a number of researchers as the leading cause of inaccuracies in heat release computations. The main objective of this research was to develop a combustion model that was less empirically based than the existing zerodimensional models for use in evaluating the combustion and resulting thermal stresses generated by alternative fuels. in diesel engines. Particular attention was paid to the development of a spatial and temporal model of convective heat transfer that was based on gas flow characteristics and to the introduction of a radiation heat transfer model that made use of fuel properties and fuel-air ratio. The combustion process was divided into two zones representing burnt and unburnt constituents and the resulting temperatures in each zone were used in the calculations of convective and radiative heat transfer. The complete model was formulated in such a way that it could be applied with the aid of a micro-computer. Calibration and verification of the gas flow sub-models which involved the squish, swirl and turbulence components necessitated the use of published data. Good agreement for the squish and swirl components was obtained between the present model and the experimental data from three engines, two with a bowl-in-piston and the other with a flat piston. These gas flow components dominated the gas velocities in the combustion chamber and provided a reliable foundation for the calculation of convective heat transfer. In spite of the well documented difficulties of characterising turbulence, after calibration the model generated turbulence levels with acceptable trends and magnitudes. Tests were carried out on a naturally aspirated ADE 236 engine involving the measurement of cylinder pressure and heat flux at a single point. Motored engine data were used to verify the convective heat transfer rates and to ascertain the effects of soot deposition on the heat flux probe. Close correlation between predicted and measured heat flux was achieved after accounting for the effects of chamber geometry at the probe site. Soot deposition on the probe caused a significant attenuation of the heat flux within a short period of the engine running under fired conditions. The results from fired engine tests showed that the two zone combustion model was providing plausible trends in the burnt and unburnt zone temperatures and that the model generated combined heat transfer rates which were credible not only on a global basis but also in terms of point predictions in the combustion chamber. The results also highlighted the considerable variation in heat transfer that could occur from one point in the chamber to another. Such variations added considerable weight to the objective of moving away from a zero-dimensional model to a quasi-dimensional type where predictions could be made on a more localised rather than global basis. It was concluded that the model was a definite improvement over zero-dimensional models and competed favourably with existing quasi-dimensional models with advantages in both simplicity and accuracy.