Evaluation of haematological parameters and immune markers in HIV-infected and non-infected pre-eclamptic Black women.
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This study focuses on women with both pre-eclampsia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that occurs after 20 weeks gestation. Thrombocytopenia is the most common haematological abnormality in pre-eclampsia. Further, studies suggest that the immunological mechanism plays some role in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia. The immunological hallmark of HIV infection is a progressive decline in the number of CD4 T lymphocytes and significant haematological abnormalities are also common in HIV-infected individuals i.e. anaemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. The study population comprised of two groups i.e., pre-eclamptic HIV-positive African women and preeclamptic HIV-negative African women as the control group. Samples were analysed for haematological parameters (full blood count) and immunological markers (flow cytometry). There was no statistical significance in the following parameters: RBC, Hb, haematocrit, MCV, MCH, MCHC, platelets, MPV, WBC, lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes, basophils and CD8. There was a statistical difference in the CD3 and CD4 counts between both the groups. However, the CD3 and CD4 counts were within the normal range in the HIV-negative pre-eclamptic group and even though CD3 decreased, it was still within the normal range in the HIV-positive pre-eclamptic group, with CD4 decreasing below the normal range in the HIV-positive pre-eclamptic group. This suggests that immune mechanisms involving CD estimations do not play a role in pre-eclampsia since the decrease in the counts can be solely attributed to HIV infection. Results obtained in this study do not show any severe haematological or immunological abnormalities when women have both pre-eclampsia and HIV infection.