Rain attenuation modelling for Southern Africa.
Mulangu, Chrispin Tshikomba.
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In order to address rain attenuation scattering of millimetric waves and microwave sin Botswana, we have employed a comparison technique to determine the Ro.o1 at fourteen diverse locations in Botswana. In addition we have identified two rain climatic zones for Botswana. We note that Matzler employs Mie Scattering technique to determine the specific attenuation due to rain in Central Europe. Both Matzler and Olsen use the exponential distribution of N(D) to calculate y. In this dissertation we use the Mie scattering approach, but assume several distributions, including the log-normal distribution of N(D) as expounded by Ajayi et aI., to determine y for tropical and subtropical regions of Africa. The results show that the extinction coefficients depend more strongly on temperature at lower frequencies than at higher frequencies for lognormal distribution: at selected frequencies, we record high attenuation values at rising SHF bands: at 300 GHz, tropical showers take on values of 12, 12.5, 11.9 and 14 dB/km for Gaborone, Francistown, Kasane and Selebi-Phikwe, respectively. The absorption coefficient is significant but decreases exponentially with rain temperature at lower microwave frequencies. The application of the proposed model (Continental Thunderstorm is shown using practical results from Durban) is corroborated using practical results from Durban. Further, based on attenuation measurements, it is found that the lognormal distribution is suitable for Durban at rain rates greater than or equal to 21 mm/h. At rain rates below this, the loss-Thunderstorm is the better fit. Finally in this dissertation the results show that for rainfall intensity below about 10 mm/h for Marshall-Palmer (MP), Joss-Drizzle (JD), Joss-Thunderstorm (JT) and Law-Parson (LP) distributions, and below about 4 mm/h for Continental-Showers (CS), Tropical Showers (TS), Continental Thunderstorms (CT) and Tropical Thunderstorm (TT) distributions, the specific rain backscattering follows Rayleigh scattering law where the rain drops are small with respect to the wavelength when the frequency is 19.5 GHz. At rain rates above 10 mm/h for exponential distribution, and above 4 mm/h for lognormal distribution, the specific backscattering follows Mie scattering law. When the received echo power from rain becomes significant, it contributes to the rise in the noise floor and the radar receiver can lose its target. In addition, the result shows that Mie backscattering efficiency is highest at a raindrop diameter of 4.7mm.