Analysing transient effects in the ionosphere using narrowband VLF data.
Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves propagate within the Earth-ionosphere waveguide with very little attenuation. Modifications of the waveguide geometry affect the propagation conditions, and hence, the amplitude and phase of VLF signals. Changes in the ionosphere, such as the presence of the D-region during the day, or the precipitation of energetic particles, are the main causes of this modification. Using narrowband receivers monitoring remote VLF transmitters, the amplitude and phase of these signals are recorded. A multivariate data analysis technique, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), is applied to the data in order to determine parameters such as seasonal and diurnal changes which affect the variation of these signals. Data was then analysed for effects from extragalactic gamma ray bursts, terrestrial gamma ray flashes and solar flares. Only X-rays from solar flares were shown to have an appreciable affect on ionospheric propagation.