Travelling-wave frequency conversion.
Travelling-wave distributed amplifiers are providing gain over broad frequency ranges for microwave applications. Similar concepts are applicable to distributed mixers and, with the use of controlled feedback, to a multifunction component simultaneously emulating a mixer, amplifier and an oscillator. The concept of this new travelling-wave frequency converter is introduced and data for a discrete component test circuit is presented. To facilitate the converter operation a new three-port travelling-wave mixer is introduced and characterized. Four-port scattering and wave scattering transformations are derived as a method of analysis of the four-port distributed structure. This enables sequential circuit analysis on a small computer. Practical applications unique to the advanced automatic network analyser, including time domain measurements, are presented to characterize test circuits as well as to develop ancillary equipment such as a transistor test fixture. Automated error corrected transistor measurements and de-embedding are also discussed. A piecewise linear quantum mechanical method of modelling the conduction channel of a short gate field effect transistor is given to aid the extrapolation of the distributed frequency converter concept to submicron and heterojunction structures.