The determination of activity coefficients at infinite dilution using gas liquid chromatography.
Moollan, Warren Charles.
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The aim of this investigation was to develop and test a theory that allowed for the calculation of the activity coefficients at infinite dilutions (l' ~ 3) from G.L.C. measurements using moderately volatile solvents. The solvents chosen for study were straight chained (Cs to C7) and cyclic (Cs, C6 and benzene) liquid hydrocarbons using cis- and trans-decahydronaphthalene (decalin) as the stationary liquid phase (solvent). The systems were studied at two different temperatures, 283.15 K and 298.15 K. The solutes were n-pentane~ n-hexane, n-heptane, cyclopentane, cyclohexane and benzene. This method for the determination of activity coefficients has the advantage of being able to work at infinite dilution, whereas in other techniques, extrapolation to infinite dilution of finite-concentration data is necessary. In addition solutes are separated from impurities when chromatographed so that only very small quantities of moderately pure material need be· used. However the technique is also limited since the solute studied (injected reagent) needs to be volatile, while the solvent (liquid stationary phase) should be involatile. The solvents chosen in this experiment (cis- and transdecalin) are moderately volatile which introduces many limitations since the theory developed for the determination of activity coefficients at infinite dilution is restricted to involatile solvents. However a novel method for working with moderately volatile solvents is developed by relating the loss of solvent to its partial pressure and modifying the existing theory. In the past the use of precolumns and/or saturators, coarse packing, small pressure gradients, and internal standards were used when working with volatile solvents. However employing this new method excludes the use of precolumns, saturators, or internal standards, and allows any type of packing and pressure gradient to be used. The calculated activity coefficients are compared with literature values, where the wor~ers employed G.L.C. techniques, and with predicted values. The activity coefficients calculated at both temperatures are used in the calculation of excess partial molar enthalpies. These results are compared with values obtained from finite concentration data by other workers.