|dc.description.abstract||This geostrophic current-controlled Zululand/Natal shelf displays a unique assemblage of interesting
physical, sedimentological and biological phenomena. The shelf in this area is extremely narrow
compared to the global average of 75km, and is characterised by submarine canyons, coral reefs, and
steep gradients on the continental slope. A shelf break occurs 2.1km to 4.1km offshore and the shelf
can be divided into a northern region and a southern region based on the presence or absence of a
defined shelf break. The southern shelf has a poorly-defined shelf break whilst the northern shelf has
a well-defined break at -65m. The poor definition of the shelf break on the southern shelf can possibly
be attributed to the presence of giant, climbing sand dunes offshore of Jesser Point at depths of -37m
to -60m. The northern shelf has a series of coast-parallel oriented patch coral reefs which have
colonised carbonate-cemented, coastal-facies sequences.
The northern shelf can be divided into three distinct zones: inner-, mid-, and outer-shelf zones. The
inner-shelf is defined as the area landward of the general coral reef trend, with depths varying from
0m to -I5m and having an average gradient of 1.1. The mid-shelf is defined by the general coral reef
trend, varying from -9m over the shallow central axis of the reefs to -35m along the deep reef-front
environments. The outer-shelf is seaward of the coral reefs and occurs at a depth range of -35m to -
65m. Gradients vary from 1° in the south to 2.5° in the northern part of the study area, and are steep
compared to world average shelf gradient of 0.116°.
Four submarine canyons occur in the study area and are classified as mature- or youthful-phase
canyons depending on the degree to which they breach the shelf. The origin of these canyons is not
related to the position of modern river mouths but can probably be linked to palaeo-outlets of the
Pongola and Mkuze River systems. It is suggested that the canyons are mass-wasting features which
were exploited by palaeo-drainage during regressions. The youthful-phase canyons appear to be mass-wasting features associated with an unstable, rapidly-deposited, progradational late Pliocene sequence
and a steep upper continental slope. The mature-phase canyons were probably initiated by mass-wasting
but have advanced shoreward, breaching the shelf, due to their link with the palaeo-outlets
of the Pongola and Mkuze Rivers during late Pleistocene regressions.
Evidence of modem canyon growth has been noted on numerous SCUBA diving surveys carried out
on the canyon heads. These take the form of minor wall slumps and small-scale debris flows. The
canyons are also supplied with large quantities of sand in the form of large-scale shelf subaqueous
dunes generated and transported by the Agulhas Current. As these bedforms meet the canyons the
sediment cascades down the canyon thalweg and causes erosion and downcutting of the canyon walls
and floor thereby increasing the canyon dimensions.
Late Pleistocene beachrock and aeolianite outcrops with or without an Indo-Pacific coral reef veneer
are the dominant consolidated lithology on the shelf. These submerged, coast-parallel, carbonate cemented,
coastal facies extend semi-continuously from -5m to -95m, and delineate late Pleistocene
palaeocoastline events. The rock fabric of these high primary porosity lithologies shows grains floating
in a carbonate cement with occasional point-contacts. Grains are mostly quartz (80-90%), minor K-feldspar
and plagioclase (5-10%), and various lithic fragments. The rocks contain conspicuous organic
grains including foraminifera, bivalve, echinoid, bryozoan, red algal, and occasional sponge spicule
fragments; these commonly display replacement fabrics or iron-stained rims. The dominant
sedimentary structures found in these sandstone outcrops include high-angle planar cross-bedding and
primary depositional dip bedding. Palaeocurrent directions sngest a palaeoenvironment dominated
by a combination of longitudinal and transverse dunes with wind directions similar to those observed
forming the modem dune systems. Erosional features evident on the submerged beachrocks and
aeolianites include gullies trending in two different directions and sea-level planation surfaces with or
without the presence of potholes.
The unconsolidated sediment on the shelf is either shelf sand, composed mainly of terrigenous quartz
grains; or bioclastic sediment which is partially derived from biogenic sources.
The quartzose sand from the inner-shelf is generally fine-grained, moderately- to well-sorted, and
coarsely- to near symmetrically-skewed. Carbonate content is low, and varies between 4-13%.
Quartzose sand from the outer-shelf is fine-grained, moderately- to well-sorted, and coarsely- to very
coarsely-skewed. The inner-shelf quartzose sand is better sorted than the outer-shelf sand due to
increased reworking of this sediment by the high-energy swell regime. Sediment from the shallower
areas of the outer-shelf (< -50m) is better sorted than sediment from depths of greater than -50m.
Generally wave-reworking of quartzose shelf sand from the Sodwana Bay shelf results in greater
sediment maturity than that observed from geostrophic current effects or a combination of geostrophic
and wave-reworking. This sediment was derived by reworking of aeolian and beach sediments,
deposited on the shelf during the period leading up to the Last Glacial Maximum (15 000 - 18 000
years B.P.) when sea-level was -130m, during the Holocene (Flandrian) transgression.
Bioclastic sediment on the Sodwana Bay shelf is defined as having a CaC03 content of greater than
20% and is a mixture of biogeoically-derived debris and quartzose sand. The distribution of bioclastic
sediment in the study area is widespread, with reef-derived and outer-shelf-derived populations being
evident. This sediment consists of skeletal detritus originating from the mechanical and biological
destruction of carbonate-secreting organisms such as molluscs, foraminifera, alcyonaria, scleractinia,
cirripedia, echinodermata, bryozoa, porifera. The reef-derived bioclastic population is confined to
depths less than -40m in close proximity to reef areas, whereas the shelf-derived bioclastic population
occurs at depths greater than -40m and is derived from carbonate-producing organisms on deep water
reefs and soft-substrate environments on the shelf.
Large-scale subaqueous dunes form in the unconsolidated sediment on the outer-shelf due to the
Agulhas flow acting as a sediment conveyor. These dunes are a common feature on the Sodwana Bay
shelf occurring as two distinct fields at depths of -35m to -70m, the major sediment transport direction
being towards the south. The two dune fields, the inner- and outer subaqueous dune fields, are
physically divided by Late Pleistocene beachrock and aeolianites ledges. A bedform hierarchy has been
recognised. The larger, outer dune field appears to have originated as a system of climbing bedforms
with three generations of bedforms being superimposed to form a giant bedform, while the inner dune
field has a less complex construction. The largest bedforms are those of the outer dune field off Jesser
Point, being up to 12 m high, 4 km long and 1.2 km wide. A major slip face, with a slope of 8° is
Bedload parting zones exist where the bedform migration direction changes from south to north.
Three bedload parting zones occur in the study area at depths of -60m, -47m and -45m; two in the
inner dune field and one in the outer dune field. These zones are invariably located at the southern
limits of large clockwise eddy systems. Such eddies appear to be the result of topographically induced
vorticity changes in the geostrophic flow and/or the response to atmospheric forcing caused by coastal
low-pressure system moving up the coastline.
It has been demonstrated that the inner subaqueous dune sediment conveyor is not active all the time
but only during periods . of increased current strength when the Agulhas Current meanders inshore.
The smaller bedforms in the outer dune field undergo continuous transport due to the current velocity
on the shelf edge outer dune field being higher than the velocity experienced on the inner dune field.
The very large 2·D dune which forms the outer dune field is probably not active at present: this is
inferred due to the shallow angle of the mega-crest lee slope (8°).
The very large Sodwana Bay subaqueous dune fields may be compared with the very large,
reconstructed, subaqueous dunes which occur in Lower Permian sediments of the Vryheid Formation,
northern Natal. These Permian dunes are represented, in section, as a fine- to medium-grained distal
facies sandstone with giant crossbeds. These large-scale bedforms are unidirectional, but rare
directionally-reversed, climbing bedforms do occur, this directional reversal may be related to bedload
parting zones. On the evidence presented in this thesis, it is proposed that these Permian subaqueous
dunes may be ancient analogues of the modem subaqueous dune field on the Sodwana Bay shelf.
Positive-relief hummocks and negative-relief swale structures are fairly common in the fine-grained,
quartzose shelf sand at depths of -30m to -60m. These appear to be transitional bedforms related to
the reworking by storms of medium 2-D subaqueous dunes. These hummocky structures may be the
modem equivalent of hummocky cross-stratification noted in the geological record, and if so, they are
probably the first to have ever been observed underwater.
The occurrences of ladderback ripples on the Sodwana Bay shelf at depths of -4m to -17m, suggest that
subtidal ladderback ripples may be more common than previously thought. Ladderback ripples are
common features of tidal flats and beaches where they form by late-stage emergence run-off during
the ebb tide. They are generally considered diagnostic of clastic intertidal environments. The mode
of formation on the Sodwana Bay shelf is different from the classic late-stage emergence run-off model
of intertidal occurrences, being a subtidal setting. Subaqueous observations indicate that ladderback
ripples are not environment-specific, and that additional evidence of emergence is therefore necessary
to support an intertidal setting in the rock record: ladderback ripples alone are insufficient to prove
an intertidal environment.
The coral patch reefs of the northern Natal coast are unique, being the most southerly reefs in Africa,
and totally unspoilt. The Zululand reefs are formed by a thin veneer of Indo-Pacific type corals which
have colonised submerged, late Pleistocene beachrocks and aeolianites. Two-Mile Reef at Sodwana Bay
has been used to develop a physiograpbic and biological zoning model for Zululand coral reefs, which
has been applied to other reefs in the region. Eight distinct zones can be recognised and differentiated
on the basis of physiographic and biological characteristics. The reef fauna is dominated by an
abundance of alcyonarian (soft) corals, which constitute 60-70% of the total coral fauna. The Two-Mile
Reef zoning model has been successfully applied to larger reefs such as Red Sands Reef, and smaller
patch reefs (Four-Mile and Seven-Mile Reefs) in the same general area.
In this thesis extensive use has been made of Hutton's uniformitarian principles. Hutton's doctrine
is particularly relevant to the study of depositional processes and relict shorelines. Coastal processes
and weather patterns during the late Pleistocene were broadly similar to modem conditions enabling
direct comparisons to be made. A computer-aided facies analysis model has been developed based on
textural statistics and compositional features of carbonate-cemented coastal sandstones. Many
attempts have been made to distinguish different ancient sedimentary depositional environments, most
workers in this field having little success. The new method of facies reconstruction is based on:
(1) underwater observations of sedimentary structures and general reef morphology;
(2) a petrographic study of the reef-base enabling flve facies: aeolianite, backbeach,
forebeach, swash, and welded bar facies to be recognised, which control the
geomorphology of Two-Mile Reef;
(3) cluster and discriminant analysis comparing graphic settling statistics of acid-leached
reef-base samples with those of modem unconsolidated dune/beach environments.
The results of this analysis demonstrated that the beachrocks and aeolianites on the shelf formed
during a regression and that late Pleistocene coastal facies are similar to modem northern Zululand
coastal environments, which have been differentiated into aeolian, backbeach, forebeach, swash, &
A late Pleistocene and Holocene history of the shelf shows that during the late Pleistocene, post
Eemian regressions resulted in deposition and cementation of coast-parallel beachrocks and
aeolianites, which define a series of four distinct palaeocoastline episodes with possible ages between
117 000 and 22 000 years B.P. The beachrock/aeolianites formed on the shelf during stillstands and
slow regressions, and the gaps between these strandline episodes represent periods of accelerated sealevel
regression or a minor transgressive phase which hindered deposition and cementation. The
formation of these lithologies generated a considerable sediment sink in the nearshore zone. This
reduced sediment supply and grain transport in the littoral zone during the Holocene, and probably
enhanced landward movement of the shoreline during the Flandrian transgression.
Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, the beachrock/aeolianite sedimentary sequence was emergent and
blanketed by shifting aeolian sands. The Pongola River, which flowed into Lake Sibaya, reworked the
unconsolidated sediments on the shelf, and exploited the route of least resistance: along White Sands
and Wright Canyon axes. The erosion resulting from fluvial denudation in Wright Canyon has caused
this canyon to erode some of the beachrock/aeolianite outcrops which form palaeocoastline episode 2
and entrench the canyon to a deeper level; this eroded the shelf to a distance of 2km offshore.
During the Flandrian transgression the unconsolidated sediment cover was eroded, exposing and
submerging the beachrock/aeolianite sequence. Flandrian stillstands caused erosional features such
as wave-planed terraces, potholes, and gullies to be incised into beachrock and aeolianite outcrops;
these are seen at present depths of -47m, -32m, .26m, -22m, -17m to -15m, and -12m. High energy
sediment transfers, in an onshore direction, resulted in the deposition of sand bars across the outlet
of Lake Slbaya's estuary and the development of a 130m + coastal dune barrier on a pre-existlng,
remnant Plelstocene dune stub. Sea-level stabilised at its present level 7 000-6 000 years B.P. and coral
reef growth on the beachrock/aeolianite outcrops probably started at 5 000 years B.P. A minimum age
for the formation of the northern Zululand coral reefs has been established at 3780 ± 60 years B.P.
A mid Holocene transgression relating to the Climatic Optimum deposited a + 2m raised beach rock
sequence. This transgression eroded the coastal dune barrier and caused a landward shoreline
translation of approximately 40m. A minor transgression such as this can be used as a model for
coastal erosion which will result from the predicted 1.5m rise in sea-level over the next century. This
rise in sea-level could result in a 30m landward coastline translation of the present coastline, ignoring
the influence that storms and cyclones will have on the coastline configuration.||en