Revisiting community based natural resource management : a case study of the Tchuma Tchato project in Tete Province, Mozambique.
Maughan Brown, Anthony Michael.
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Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) is a paradigm that has emerged in response to the perceived failure of past approaches to conservation and development. CBNRM is intended to deliver socio-economic development to impoverished rural communities, who manage natural resources, and harness the utility of these resources as a vehicle for development. This dissertation revisits the concept of CBNRM, using the Tchuma Tchato project at Bawa, Tete Province, Mozambique as a case study. A conceptual framework for a CBNRM project intervention is developed and used to analyse the Tchuma Tchato project. The role of external agents, and particularly the lead institution, is vital to a project intervention. It is shown that external agents need to be well organised, and they need to interact effectively as a team. External agents need to have the financial and human capacity, and an understanding of CBNRM to play a constructive and effective role in a time-bound project intervention. A project intervention must evolve from a top-down intervention into an autonomous CBNRM programme, that is sustainable, and that can contribute to a process of sustainable development and conservation after the end of a project life. In order to realise this, a project intervention must be rigorously planned and designed. This formulation is critical to the subsequent implementation and operation of a project. It is vital that a CBNRM addresses the key characteristics of CBNRM, and that in doing so, it delivers social, economic and environmental development to the targeted community. Analysis of the Tchuma Tchato project at Bawa has elucidated that the project is floundering. Application of the conceptual framework to Tchuma Tchato has established causes for this. The primary cause is a weakness in the roles played by the lead institution and external agents. The project was not rigorously formulated. The project has not been effectively managed. The project has failed to address the key characteristics of CBNRM, and it is not contributing to a process of sustainable development. This analysis has facilitated the identification of remedial actions for Tchuma Tchato at Bawa, and recommendations for future CBNRM projects have been made.