|dc.creator||Iyamuremye, Jean Damascene.||
|dc.description||Thesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 2010.||en
|dc.description.abstract||Introduction: It was previously established that mental health workers in Rwanda experience secondary
traumatic stress when working with trauma survivors. The effects of secondary traumatic stress can be
serious and permanent in mental health workers when working with traumatized clients. It interferes
with mental health worker’s ability to do their work effectively.
Aim: This study aimed to explore STS and to develop an intervention model to manage secondary
traumatic stress in mental health workers in Kigali, Rwanda.
Methodology: This study was carried out into five cycles using action research approach. In the first
cycles of the study a quantitative design was used to explore secondary traumatic stress in mental health
workers in Rwanda. For this cycle, the particular aim was to determine the extent of the secondary
traumatic stress in mental health workers in Rwanda. A total of 180 participants were selected using
convenience sampling to be part of the quantitative study. In the second cycle of the study a qualitative
design was used to explore mental health workers’ experiences of secondary traumatic stress. For this
cycle 30 unstructured interviews were conducted. The third cycle aimed at developing the model to
manage secondary traumatic stress. Action research approach was used in this phase. Experts from
mental health services involved in the study were asked to participate in the study based on their
availability as research team members. The fourth cycle of the study consisted of implementing the
model in one mental health service and the fifth cycle consisted evaluation of the implementation of the
model after six weeks period. The main aim of this cycle was an observation of the model implantation.
Results: A diagrammatical model to manage secondary traumatic stress was developed by mental health
professionals. In the model development cycle of the study, it emerged that there are very strong
concurrence between the findings from experts in mental health care system and literature in terms of
what needs to be included in the intervention model to manage secondary traumatic stress in mental
health workers in Rwanda. The key elements to include in the model were based on preventive,
evaluative and curative strategies to manage secondary traumatic stress in mental health workers in
Rwanda. During the evaluation of the implementation, it emerged that participant noticed a change in
coping strategies when facing the stressful incident in the practice.
Recommendations: include an emphasis on more psychological support for mental health professional
in their workplace and for more concrete aids such as supervision, guidelines on stress management on
workplace, education on secondary traumatic stress management and implementation of counseling
service for mental health workers.
Conclusion: The model developed in the present study outlined different ways to manage STS at the
individual, social and organizational levels. There is a need to translate the interventions to manage STS
into active ongoing coping activities to be conducted at the individual, group and organizational levels.
Organizational responses, such as creating a supportive organizational culture that acknowledges the
potential for secondary traumatic stress, may help mental health workers to deal with workplace related
secondary traumatic stress.||en
|dc.subject||Mental health personnel--Job stress--Rwanda.||en
|dc.subject||Mental health personnnel--Mental health--Rwanda.||en
|dc.subject||Mental health personnel--Psychology.||en
|dc.subject||Psychiatric nurses--Job stress--Rwanda.||en
|dc.title||The development of an intervention model to manage secondary traumatic stress in mental health workers in Rwanda.||en