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dc.contributor.authorMsomi, Justice Zakhele
dc.date.accessioned2010-08-20T12:49:29Z
dc.date.available2010-08-20T12:49:29Z
dc.date.issued2007
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10413/447
dc.descriptionThesis (Ph.D.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, 2007.en_US
dc.description.abstractWe present a study of the synthesis, structural and magnetic properties of bulk and nanosized (Zn, Cd, Cu)0:5Ni0:5Fe2O4 and NiFe2O4 compounds. The e®ects of electronic con¯guration and atomic sizes of Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni on the magnetic properties of the ferrites are the primary focus of the study. Di®erent synthesis routes, preparation conditions and how they a®ect single phase formation are explored. The synthesis was undertaken by solid{state reaction, combustion, hydrothermal and glycothermal techniques. The structure determination was by Xray di®raction. The magnetic measurements were performed using MÄossbauer spectroscopy (from 79 K to about 850 K) and a vibrating sample magnetometer (at about 300 K). The bulk densities of the sintered pellets were deduced by Archimedes principle. The bulk oxides were produced by solid{state reaction and combustion techniques. Fine powders with grain sizes of about 10 nm were produced from bulk compounds by a Retsch planetary ball mill and by the hydrothermal and glycothermal processes. The e®ects of the applied pressure used to make pellets (related to green density of the raw pellets) and the sintering temperature on the properties were investigated. An anomalous variation of bulk densities of (Zn, Cd)0:5Ni0:5Fe2O4 oxides with increase in pelletizing pressure was observed which appears to suggest evidence for trapped porosity. Di®erent states of pelletizing the samples appear to be related to a systematic change of the hyper¯ne ¯eld distributions derived from the MÄossbauer spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic hyper ¯ne ¯elds at tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites were observed to vary with temperature according to the equations Bhf (T) = Bhf (0)[1 ¡ (T=TC)n]¯n where n = 1 (based on the Landau{Ginzburg theory) and n = 2 (based on the Stoner theory). The equation Bhf (T) = Bhf (0)[1¡(T=TC)2]¯2 appears to ¯t the hyper¯ne ¯eld data over a wider temperature range. The Zn{ and Cd{based oxides were found to be ferrimagnetic with Curie temperature TC = 548 § 3 K (measured by zero velocity technique). The Cu{based compound exhibited antiferromagnetic behavior with a magnetic transition temperature of 825 § 3 K. The di®erence in behavior between Zn{, Cd{ and Cu{based compounds is due to di®erence in electronic con¯guration and atomic or ionic sizes. The stronger magnetic coupling between spins in the Cu{based sample can be explained by the presence of RKKY interactions in addition to superexchange interactions. The larger ionic size for Cd appears to favour smaller grain sizes in Cd{based oxides. An anomalous increase in TC is obtained in the Zn0:5Ni0:5Fe2O4 compound with reduction in grain size. This increase in TC is attributed to a distribution of Zn ions on both A and B sites. The MÄossbauer spectra of the milled nanosized samples show a combination of ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic behavior. The coercive ¯eld (HC) at room temperature was found to increase with reduction in grain size (G) according to the equation HC = am+bm=G, which is consistent with multidomain particles. With further reduction in grain sizes, the coercive ¯eld reduced according to the equation HC = as ¡bs=G2. This equation is associated with the onset of single domain particles. The samples produced by hydrothermal and glycothermal processes show evidence of transformation from single domain to multidomain structure with increasing sintering temperature. The ease of single{phase formation in the compounds studied is shown to depend on the technique used to prepare the samples. Single phase formation of the spinel structure was easier to achieve in samples prepared by wet chemical methods because lower sintering temperatures (T < 1000 oC) were required.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.subjectFerrites (Magnetic materials)en_US
dc.subjectAlloys--Magnetic properties.en_US
dc.subjectTheses--Physics.en_US
dc.titleSynthesis, structural and magnetic properties of bulk and nanosized (Zn, Cd, Cu)0.5Ni0.5Fe2o4 and NiFe204 ferritesen_US
dc.typeThesisen_US


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