Complete symmetry groups : a connection between some ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations.
Myeni, Senzosenkosi Mandlakayise.
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The concept of complete symmetry groups has been known for some time in applications to ordinary differential equations. In this Thesis we apply this concept to partial differential equations. For any 1+1 linear evolution equation of Lie’s type (Lie S (1881) Uber die Integration durch bestimmte Integrale von einer Klasse linear partieller Differentialgleichung Archiv fur Mathematik og Naturvidenskab 6 328-368 (translation into English by Ibragimov NH in CRC Handbook of Lie Group Analysis of Differential Equations 2 473-508) containing three and five exceptional point symmetries and a nonlinear equation admitting a finite number of Lie point symmetries, the representation of the complete symmetry group has been found to be a six-dimensional algebra isomorphic to sl(2,R) s A3,1, where the second subalgebra is commonly known as the Heisenberg-Weyl algebra. More generally the number of symmetries required to specify any partial differential equations has been found to equal the number of independent variables of a general function on which symmetries are to be acted. In the absence of a sufficient number of point symmetries which are not solution symmetries one must look to generalized or nonlocal symmetries to remove the deficiency. This is true whether the evolution equation be linear or not. We report Ans¨ atze which provide a route to the determination of the required nonlocal symmetry or symmetries necessary to supplement the point symmetries for the complete specification of the equations. Furthermore we examine the connection of ordinary differential equations to partial differential equations through a common realisation of complete symmetry group. Lastly we revisit the notion of complete symmetry groups and further extend it so that it refers to those groups that uniquely specify classes of equations or systems. This is based on some recent developments pertaining to the properties and the behaviour of such groups in differential equations under the current definition, particularly their representations and realisations for Lie remarkable equations. The results seem to be quite astonishing.