Tracing development frameworks down the aid chain : CARE USA's household livelihoods strategy from NGO headquarters to its use in South Africa, Lesotho, and partner organizations.
This article analyses the aid chain and north-south power relations with regard to INGO programming strategies. CARE USA's Household and Livelihood Security (HLS) programming framework is examined, as case study, from the headquarter level to country offices in South Africa and Lesotho as well as partner organizations. HLS is discussed in relation to participatory methodology, management tools, the project cycle, donors and direct versus partner implementation. The paper argues that using HLS to combine people centred development ideas with northern-based management techniques has led to inadequate success in the field. Furthermore, the unequal power relations between the north and the south ultimately sabotage development success. HLS is a promising programming framework for development pratictioners. However, many of the past programming failures continue to impede HLS. Additionally, new programming failures are being created through the dissemination and implementation of HLS programming as it currently exists.
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