Thermal shock and thermal stress prediction on a highly loaded turbine nozzle guide vane based on an aerodynamic and thermal analysis.
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A 2-D plain strain CFD/FEM model to simulate thermal shocks and stresses in a turbine blade has been set up using the commercially available software FLUENT and NASTRAN. The model was validated against the experimental data of Bohn et. al. and used to simulate real test cases. The steady state numerical model was set up for a single Mark II nozzle guide vane using the correct boundary conditions to resolve the flow field. A combined laminar and turbulent model was developed in FLUENT that was used to highly accurately predict the pressure, temperature and heat transfer coefficient distribution on the blade surface as well as the temperature distribution on the cooling holes inside the blade. The resulting temperature profiles on the blade and cooling holes were used as boundary conditions for the FEM analysis to resolve the internal temperature and stress profiles. The pressure, temperature and heat transfer distribution on the blade, from FLUENT, were compared to those from Bohn et. al. The predicted pressure distribution was exact with the experimental results and the predicted temperature distribution had an average overprediction of 1.4 % on both the pressure and suction side. The internal temperature profile predicted by NASTRAN was correctly predicted with an average over-prediction of 2 %. The stress contours were accurately predicted with the stress magnitude varying by 17 % to that of Bohn et. al. The reason for the difference between the MSC.NASTRAN and Bohn et. al. stress results is believed to be purely solver related. Bohn et al. used a FEM package called MSC.MARClMentat. With the steady state model validated, transient test cases were simulated that represent typical operational data. The mission profile was obtained for the T-56 engine found on the C130 cargo plane. The model was used to simulate the test case where the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) varied with time. The simulation results showed that stress was proportional to TIT, where changes in the TIT were seen later in the stress curve, due to conduction in the blade. Steep TIT changes, such as shock loads affected stress later than gentler TIT changes. Thus, the FLUENT / NASTRAN model was successfully validated, and used to simulate a flight mission profile. The goal to calculate quality unsteady stress profiles was achieved and forms the boundary conditions for thermal fatigue calculations.