## Stratification and domination in graphs.

##### Abstract

In a recent manuscript (Stratification and domination in graphs. Discrete Math. 272 (2003), 171-185) a new mathematical framework for studying domination is presented. It is shown that the domination number and many domination related parameters can be interpreted as restricted 2-stratifications or 2-colorings. This framework places the domination number in a new perspective and suggests many other parameters of a graph which are related in some way to the domination number. In this thesis, we continue this study of domination and stratification in graphs. Let F be a 2-stratified graph with one fixed blue vertex v specified. We say that F is rooted at the blue vertex v. An F-coloring of a graph G is a red-blue coloring of the vertices of G such that every blue vertex v of G belongs to a copy of F (not necessarily induced in G) rooted at v. The F-domination number yF(GQ of G is the minimum number of red vertices of G in an F-coloring of G. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the chapters that follow. In Chapter 2, we investigate the X-domination number of prisms when X is a 2-stratified 4-cycle rooted at a blue vertex where a prism is the cartesian product Cn x K2, n > 3, of a cycle Cn and a K2. In Chapter 3 we investigate the F-domination number when (i) F is a 2-stratified path P3 on three vertices rooted at a blue vertex which is an end-vertex of the F3 and is adjacent to a blue vertex and with the remaining vertex colored red. In particular, we show that for a tree of diameter at least three this parameter is at most two-thirds its order and we characterize the trees attaining this bound. (ii) We also investigate the F-domination number when F is a 2-stratified K3 rooted at a blue vertex and with exactly one red vertex. We show that if G is a connected graph of order n in which every edge is in a triangle, then for n sufficiently large this parameter is at most (n — /n)/2 and this bound is sharp. In Chapter 4, we further investigate the F-domination number when F is a 2- stratified path P3 on three vertices rooted at a blue vertex which is an end-vertex of the P3 and is adjacent to a blue vertex with the remaining vertex colored red. We show that for a connected graph of order n with minimum degree at least two this parameter is bounded above by (n —1)/2 with the exception of five graphs (one each of orders four, five and six and two of order eight). For n > 9, we characterize those graphs that achieve the upper bound of (n — l)/2. In Chapter 5, we define an f-coloring of a graph to be a red-blue coloring of the vertices such that every blue vertex is adjacent to a blue vertex and to a red vertex, with the red vertex itself adjacent to some other red vertex. The f-domination number yz{G) of a graph G is the minimum number of red vertices of G in an f-coloring of G. Let G be a connected graph of order n > 4 with minimum degree at least 2. We prove that (i) if G has maximum degree A where A 4 with maximum degree A where A 5 with maximum degree A where 3