Leaf recognition for accurate plant classification.
Plants are the most important living organisms on our planet because they are sources of energy and protect our planet against global warming. Botanists were the first scientist to design techniques for plant species recognition using leaves. Although many techniques for plant recognition using leaf images have been proposed in the literature, the precision and the quality of feature descriptors for shape, texture, and color remain the major challenges. This thesis investigates the precision of geometric shape features extraction and improved the determination of the Minimum Bounding Rectangle (MBR). The comparison of the proposed improved MBR determination method to Chaudhuri's method is performed using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) generated by each method on each edge point of the MBR. On the top left point of the determined MBR, Chaudhuri's method has the MAE value of 26.37 and the proposed method has the MAE value of 8.14. This thesis also investigates the use of the Convexity Measure of Polygons for the characterization of the degree of convexity of a given leaf shape. Promising results are obtained when using the Convexity Measure of Polygons combined with other geometric features to characterize leave images, and a classification rate of 92% was obtained with a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network classifier. After observing the limitations of the Convexity Measure of Polygons, a new shape feature called Convexity Moments of Polygons is presented in this thesis. This new feature has the invariant properties of the Convexity Measure of Polygons, but is more precise because it uses more than one value to characterize the degree of convexity of a given shape. Promising results are obtained when using the Convexity Moments of Polygons combined with other geometric features to characterize the leaf images and a classification rate of 95% was obtained with the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network classifier. Leaf boundaries carry valuable information that can be used to distinguish between plant species. In this thesis, a new boundary-based shape characterization method called Sinuosity Coefficients is proposed. This method has been used in many fields of science like Geography to describe rivers meandering. The Sinuosity Coefficients is scale and translation invariant. Promising results are obtained when using Sinuosity Coefficients combined with other geometric features to characterize the leaf images, a classification rate of 80% was obtained with the Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network classifier. Finally, this thesis implements a model for plant classification using leaf images, where an input leaf image is described using the Convexity Moments, the Sinuosity Coefficients and the geometric features to generate a feature vector for the recognition of plant species using a Radial Basis Neural Network. With the model designed and implemented the overall classification rate of 97% was obtained.