Intelligent instance selection techniques for support vector machine speed optimization with application to e-fraud detection.
Akinyelu, Ayobami Andronicus.
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Decision-making is a very important aspect of many businesses. There are grievous penalties involved in wrong decisions, including financial loss, damage of company reputation and reduction in company productivity. Hence, it is of dire importance that managers make the right decisions. Machine Learning (ML) simplifies the process of decision making: it helps to discover useful patterns from historical data, which can be used for meaningful decision-making. The ability to make strategic and meaningful decisions is dependent on the reliability of data. Currently, many organizations are overwhelmed with vast amounts of data, and unfortunately, ML algorithms cannot effectively handle large datasets. This thesis therefore proposes seven filter-based and five wrapper-based intelligent instance selection techniques for optimizing the speed and predictive accuracy of ML algorithms, with a particular focus on Support Vector Machine (SVM). Also, this thesis proposes a novel fitness function for instance selection. The primary difference between the filter-based and wrapper-based technique is in their method of selection. The filter-based techniques utilizes the proposed fitness function for selection, while the wrapper-based technique utilizes SVM algorithm for selection. The proposed techniques are obtained by fusing SVM algorithm with the following Nature Inspired algorithms: flower pollination algorithm, social spider algorithm, firefly algorithm, cuckoo search algorithm and bat algorithm. Also, two of the filter-based techniques are boundary detection algorithms, inspired by edge detection in image processing and edge selection in ant colony optimization. Two different sets of experiments were performed in order to evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques (wrapper-based and filter-based). All experiments were performed on four datasets containing three popular e-fraud types: credit card fraud, email spam and phishing email. In addition, experiments were performed on 20 datasets provided by the well-known UCI data repository. The results show that the proposed filter-based techniques excellently improved SVM training speed in 100% (24 out of 24) of the datasets used for evaluation, without significantly affecting SVM classification quality. Moreover, experimental results also show that the wrapper-based techniques consistently improved SVM predictive accuracy in 78% (18 out of 23) of the datasets used for evaluation and simultaneously improved SVM training speed in all cases. Furthermore, two different statistical tests were conducted to further validate the credibility of the results: Freidman’s test and Holm’s post-hoc test. The statistical test results reveal that the proposed filter-based and wrapper-based techniques are significantly faster, compared to standard SVM and some existing instance selection techniques, in all cases. Moreover, statistical test results also reveal that Cuckoo Search Instance Selection Algorithm outperform all the proposed techniques, in terms of speed. Overall, the proposed techniques have proven to be fast and accurate ML-based e-fraud detection techniques, with improved training speed, predictive accuracy and storage reduction. In real life application, such as video surveillance and intrusion detection systems, that require a classifier to be trained very quickly for speedy classification of new target concepts, the filter-based techniques provide the best solutions; while the wrapper-based techniques are better suited for applications, such as email filters, that are very sensitive to slight changes in predictive accuracy.