Influence of concentration on properties of spray deposited nickel oxide films for solar cells.
Ukoba, Kingsley O.
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Spray pyrolysis technique was used to deposit various concentration of nickel oxide films on glass substrate. The Effect of varying precursor concentration on elemental, morphological and structural properties was investigated on the deposited NiO films. Nickel (II) acetate tetrahydrate precursor was used at substrate temperature of 350 oC. Precursor concentrations were 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 M. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) surface morphology revealed nanostructured films with particles densely distributed across substrates surface. Increased in surface grains was observed as the precursor solution increased. Elemental composition of NiO films revealed presence of Ni and O element. There was reduction in oxygen concentration as precursor solution increases. Amorphous structure was observed at concentration of 0.025 M while polycrystalline with cubic structure was observed at higher concentrations. Preferred orientation was along (1 1 1) peak with small intensity along (2 0 0) peak. XRD patterns have peak diffraction at (2θ = 37 o and 43 o) for (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) planes respectively and 64 o for (2 2 0) plane for 0.1 M. Film thickness grew with increase in precursor concentration. Film micro strain was observed to have compression for all precursor solution conspicuously revealing the effect of varied concentration on NiO films properties