Testing of a framework for product placement in South Africa for the Hip Hop industry.
Product placement is a marketing tool on which billions of dollars are being spent (Plambeck, 2010, par. 4). This is when a brand name, packaging, logo or trademark intentionally appears in a form of media (Homer, 2009, p. 21). The hip hop industry also generates billions of dollars every year (Watson, 2004, par. 1). Various studies exist on product placement, such as how modality relates to effects measures in the study by Russell (2002) and the a study by Roozen and Claeys (2009) which depicts how the viewer’s attitude towards a music video relates to how effective the product placements are on that individual. However there is not a lot of research testing theoretical frameworks or models for product placement. Furthermore, research into product placement in the hip hop industry is scarce. A framework for product placement was proposed by Balasubramanian, Karrh, and Patwardhan (2006) that describes factors that affect audience outcomes. This research aims to test some of the proposed relationships in this model in the context of hip hop music videos. The model has four constructs: execution factors, individual-specific factors, processing depth, and message outcomes (Balasubramanian et al., 2006, p. 115). Factors under each construct are also suggested (Balasubramanian et al., 2006, p. 117). The framework proposes that execution factors and individual factors affect the depth of processing (Balasubramanian et al., 2006, p. 115). The processing depth then affects the message outcomes (Balasubramanian et al., 2006, p. 115). A quasi-experimental design was used and measures of each construct were selected. Under the execution construct, priming was selected as the primary measure. Modality, artist role, and ethicality of placement were selected as secondary measures. For the individualdifference factors, the participant’s attitude towards product placement and their attitude towards hip hop were selected. The continuum of consciousness was used to judge the participant’s processing depth by them rating the amount of attention paid to the video. For the effects construct, recall, response bias, and purchase intention were all used as measures. A hip hop video was selected, and manipulated into two different clips, one that was primed and one that was unprimed. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the clips. After watching the clip, they were asked to complete a questionnaire. This questionnaire requested them to assess themselves against the individual factors selected, as well as to rate their processing depth. It then asked them to recall the placements seen or heard, complete letter fragment tests, and answer questions about their purchase intention. The results of the questionnaire were analysed in SPSS using independent t-tests, Pearson product-moment correlations, and other statistical manipulations of data. Links were found between certain measures and a summary of them was shown in a adapted framework of the one by Balasubramanian et al. (2006, p. 117). For the most part, it was found that the original framework does not hold for product placements in Hip Hop in South Africa. Processing Depth seemed to play more of a moderator role than a mediator role. It was therefore recommended for marketers to focus more on the independent variables in the model to get the desired Effects measures outcomes.