Improved roach-based algorithms for global optimization problems.
Obagbuwa, Ibidun Christiana.
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Optimization of systems plays an important role in various fields including mathematics, economics, engineering and life sciences. A lot of real world optimization problems exist across field of endeavours such as engineering design, space planning, networking, data analysis, logistic management, financial planning, risk management, and a host of others. These problems are constantly increasing in size and complexity, necessitating the need for improved techniques. Many conventional approaches have failed to solve complex problems effectively due to increasingly large solution space. This has led to the development of evolutionary algorithms that draw inspiration from the process of natural evolution. It is believed that nature provides inspirations that can lead to innovative models or techniques for solving complex optimization problems. Among the class of paradigm based on this inspiration is Swarm Intelligence (SI). SI is one of the recent developments of evolutionary computation. A SI paradigm is comprised of algorithms inspired by the social behaviour of animals and insects. SI-based algorithms have attracted interest, gained popularity and attention because of their flexibility and versatility. SIbased algorithms have been found to be efficient in solving real world optimization problems. Examples of SI algorithms include Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) inspired by the pheromone trail-following behaviour of ant species; Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) inspired by flocking and swarming behaviour of insects and animals; and Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) inspired by bees’ food foraging. Recent emerging techniques in SI includes Roach-based Algorithms (RBA) motivated by cockroaches social behaviour. Two recently introduced RBA algorithms are Roach Infestation Optimization (RIO) and Cockroach Swarm Optimization (CSO) which have been applied to some optimization problems to achieve competitive results when compared to PSO. This study is motivated by the promising results of RBA, which have shown that the algorithms have potentials to be efficient tools for solving optimization problems. Extensive studies of existing RBA were carried out in this work revealing the shortcomings such as slow convergence and entrapment in local minima. The aim of this study is to overcome the identified drawbacks. We investigate RBA variants that are introduced in this work by introducing parameters such as constriction factor and sigmoid function that have proved effective for similar evolutionary algorithms in the literature. In addition components such as vigilance, cannibalism and hunger are incorporated into existing RBAs. These components are constructed by the use of some known techniques such as simple Euler, partial differential equation, crossover and mutation methods to speed up convergence and enhance the stability, exploitation and exploration of RBA. Specifically, a stochastic constriction factor was introduced to the existing CSO algorithm to improve its performance and enhance its ability to solve optimization problems involving thousands of variables. A CSO algorithm that was originally designed with three components namely chase-swarming, dispersion and ruthlessness is extended in this work with hunger component to improve its searching ability and diversity. Also, predator-prey evolution using crossover and mutation techniques were introduced into the CSO algorithm to create an adaptive search in each iteration thereby making the algorithm more efficient. In creating a discrete version of a CSO algorithm that can be used to evaluate optimization problems with any discrete range value, we introduced the sigmoid function. Furthermore, a dynamic step-size adaptation with simple Euler method was introduced to the existing RIO algorithm enhancing swarm stability and improving local and global searching abilities. The existing RIO model was also re-designed with the inclusion of vigilance and cannibalism components. The improved RBA were tested on established global optimization benchmark problems and results obtained compared with those from the literature. The improved RBA introduced in this work show better improvements over existing ones.