The lining of steep landfill slopes in South Africa and the applicability of the "minimum requirements for waste disposal by landfill" by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry.
Dookhi, Avinash Shripersadh.
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In August 2013, the landfill liner designs prescribed by the Minimum Requirements for Waste Disposal by Landfill was superseded by the containment barriers of landfills, now prescribed by the National Norms and Standards for Disposal of Waste to Landfill. These newly prescribed lining systems were assessed in terms of mineral layers, geosynthetic materials and alternatives of equivalent performance. A Class B landfill lining system was then selected to determine its performance on various slope angles. Various geosynthetic materials were tested for their interface shear strength parameters using a ring shear apparatus. These shear strength parameters were then used as inputs to calculate the selected factors of safety. The factors of safety for stability on slopes of 1:4, 1:3, 1:2 and 1:1 using 2-D limit equilibrium analyses were then calculated. The factors of safety for the integrity of the selected geosynthetic materials were also calculated. Where factors of safety were found to be less than the accepted value of 1.5, the lining system components were replaced with geosynthetics of equivalent performance and the factors of safety for stability on slopes of 1:4, 1:3, 1:2 and 1:1 were recalculated. Where factors of safety were still below 1.5, another geosynthetic in the form of veneer reinforcement was used to increase the factor of safety to an acceptable value. Alternative single sided textured and double sided textured HDPE geomembrane liners were also used to help increase the interface shear parameters. The findings from this dissertation will provide a greater understanding to landfill designers about the selection of materials of equivalent performance, the interface shear strengths of the materials tested and the performance of various landfill lining systems on steep and varying slopes. This research will also assist landfill designers to determine the relationship between various lining systems, the slope angles and factors of safety. Although this research will provide assistance with the above concepts, site specific testing is still required. Finally, the recommendations for further research on the lining of steep slopes are also highlighted.
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